1. I mapped almost every USA traffic death in the 21st century (roadway.report | Archive)
316 points by Bencarneiro | 2024-07-19 23:16:46 | 135 comments

Dehyped title: Roadway Report Provides Interactive Map Tracking Progress Towards Vision Zero Traffic Fatality Reduction Goals Nationwide.


  • Vision Zero: The core concept driving this project is Vision Zero, a philosophy aiming for zero fatalities and serious injuries on roadways.

  • Data-Driven Approach: The Nationwide Vision-Zero Map leverages extensive data from various sources to identify high-risk locations and analyze crash patterns. This includes information on:

    • Crash reports
    • Traffic volume
    • Road geometry
    • Weather conditions
  • Interactive Mapping Platform: The map provides a user-friendly interface for exploring crash data across the country. Users can zoom in on specific areas, filter by crash type or severity, and view detailed information about individual incidents.

  • Identifying High-Risk Corridors: By analyzing crash patterns and other factors, the map helps identify high-risk corridors where interventions are most needed. This allows transportation agencies to prioritize safety improvements and allocate resources effectively.

  • Promoting Transparency and Collaboration: The Nationwide Vision-Zero Map aims to increase transparency around road safety issues and foster collaboration among stakeholders. By making data publicly accessible, it encourages community involvement and empowers individuals to advocate for safer streets.

  • Supporting Evidence-Based Decision Making: The map provides valuable insights that can inform evidence-based decision-making regarding road design, traffic enforcement, and public education campaigns.

  • Continuous Improvement: The Nationwide Vision-Zero Map is a dynamic tool that will be continuously updated with new data and analysis. This ensures that it remains relevant and effective in supporting the pursuit of Vision Zero.


  • Ethical Considerations: Users debate the morality of normalizing traffic deaths by vehicle volume, arguing that each death is equally significant and should not be treated as a statistical average. Some contend that focusing on "deaths per car" devalues human life and obscures the complex factors contributing to road safety.

  • Data Interpretation and Utility: Users discuss the value of normalizing traffic data. Some argue that comparing deaths per vehicle passing by allows for a more nuanced understanding of relative danger in different locations, while others maintain that raw death counts are sufficient and that normalization can be misleading. The discussion highlights the importance of considering various factors beyond vehicle volume when assessing road safety.

  • Road Safety Factors: Users identify multiple variables influencing road safety, including vehicle speed, modal mix (the types of vehicles using the road), lane widths, parking geometry, and overall traffic volume. They emphasize that a holistic approach is necessary to address traffic fatalities effectively.

  • Praise and Interest: Users express strong admiration for the project, calling it "amazing," "one of the most amazing things" they've seen on Hacker News, and "morbidly interesting." They are eager to see a write-up explaining the methodology.

  • Technical Curiosity: Users inquire about the tools used for analysis and the source of the data. The creator reveals that the data comes from the NHTSA FARS database. Some users express interest in accessing a clean database of all accidents, not just fatalities.

  • Personal Reflections: Users share personal stories of loss related to road accidents, highlighting the emotional impact of such tragedies. One user mentions their friend's death and its lasting consequences on his brother.

  • Technical Issues: Users report encountering technical difficulties accessing the website, particularly on mobile devices.

2. Garage: Open-Source Distributed Object Storage (garagehq.deuxfleurs.fr | Archive)
98 points by n3t | 2024-07-20 00:40:31 | 21 comments

Dehyped title: Garage is an open-source, distributed object storage service implementing the Amazon S3 API for self-hosting on heterogeneous hardware.


  • Garage is an open-source distributed object storage service designed for self-hosting. It aims to provide a reliable and scalable solution for storing data, similar to Amazon S3 but with the advantage of being self-hosted.

  • Data redundancy is a key feature of Garage. Each piece of data (chunk) is replicated across three separate zones, each consisting of multiple servers. This ensures that even if one zone experiences issues, your data remains accessible.

  • Garage prioritizes ease of deployment and operation. It's designed to be lightweight and efficient, running as a single dependency-free binary on all Linux distributions.

  • Flexibility is another core principle. Garage can be deployed on heterogeneous hardware, meaning you can build a cluster using whatever second-hand machines are available. The minimum requirements are modest: an x86_64 CPU (or ARMv7/ARMv8), 1GB of RAM, at least 16GB of disk space, and a network connection with less than 200ms latency and 50Mbps bandwidth.

  • Garage is compatible with existing applications. It implements the Amazon S3 API, allowing you to seamlessly integrate it into your current workflows.

  • Garage leverages cutting-edge research in distributed systems. Its design draws inspiration from projects like Dynamo (Amazon's highly available key-value store), Conflict-Free Replicated Data Types, and Maglev (a fast and reliable software network load balancer).

  • Funding for Garage comes from various sources. The project has received support from NGI POINTER and NLnet / NGI0 Entrust. The developers encourage further contributions through donations or support contracts.


  • AWS SigV4 Authentication: Users express frustration with Garage's reliance on AWS SigV4 authentication, finding it overly complex for simple API key-based access. Some suggest alternative authentication schemes like basic auth would be more user-friendly.

  • Comparison to S3 and File Systems: Users debate the merits of object storage versus traditional file systems. Some argue that S3's lack of features (metadata, directory structures) is a drawback, while others highlight its advantages for concurrent access and scalability. The discussion also touches on the practicality of replicating AWS APIs when building self-hosted solutions.

  • Use Cases and Ecosystem: Users point out the value of S3 compatibility for interoperability with other cloud services and applications designed to work with S3. They acknowledge that while S3 might not be ideal in isolation, its widespread adoption makes it a convenient target for replication.

3. Building the new hypermedia systems (dz4k.com | Archive)
31 points by mpweiher | 2024-07-19 13:49:26 | 4 comments

Dehyped title: Migrating a technical book from AsciiDoc to Typst for improved print and web output.


  • The Migration: The author migrated their book "Hypermedia Systems" from AsciiDoc to Typst, a typesetting system offering more control over design elements.

  • Typst Advantages:

    • Allows for fine-grained control over typography, like indented paragraphs with specific rules (indenting only after non-paragraph elements).
    • Handles emphasis in a typographically correct way, reversing italics for nested emphasis.
    • Employs superior typesetting algorithms compared to web browsers, resulting in better line breaks and hyphenation.
  • HTML Output Limitations: Typst currently lacks built-in HTML output capabilities. The author initially planned to use Pandoc for conversion but encountered issues due to feature parity differences.

  • Web Book Production:

    • The author used Müteferrika, an online book publishing toolkit they were developing, to publish the web version.
    • Pandoc was eventually used for Typst-to-HTML conversion after addressing compatibility issues.
  • Print Book Production:

    • The print version is now produced using Lulu instead of Amazon KDP for potentially more consistent printing quality.
  • Overall Success: The migration to Typst was successful despite some tooling challenges due to Typst's relative youth as a project. The author highlights Shiroa as a promising tool for web book publishing with Typst.


  • Praise for Typst: Users express admiration for the typesetting capabilities of Typst, highlighting its ability to handle paragraph indentation conventions effectively. They cite examples like first-line indents being automatically applied after non-paragraph elements, a feature they find superior to CSS implementations.

  • Appreciation for Visual Design: Users commend the new cover design for the book, describing it as "great" and expressing satisfaction with the pixel art style chosen.

  • Accessibility and Availability: Users note the availability of both PDF and EPUB versions of the book, accessible through a Git repository and Libgen. They also mention the ease of building these formats using simple "just" commands.

4. CrowdStrike Update: Windows Bluescreen and Boot Loops (old.reddit.com | Archive)
3991 points by BLKNSLVR | 2024-07-19 05:26:13 | 3376 comments

Dehyped title: CrowdStrike Falcon Sensor update triggers BSODs due to incompatibility with certain Windows kernel versions.


  • CrowdStrike Falcon Sensor Crashing Windows Systems: A recent content update from CrowdStrike caused its Falcon Sensor endpoint security product to trigger blue screen errors (BSODs) on Windows systems.

  • Scale of the Problem: The issue is widespread, potentially affecting 70,000 endpoints across various organizations.

  • Recovery Challenges: Organizations are facing difficulties recovering from the crashes due to:

    • BitLocker encryption often being enabled on affected machines, requiring recovery keys stored on servers that may also be down due to the Falcon Sensor problem.
    • Remote sites with limited IT support struggling to implement workarounds.
  • CrowdStrike's Response:

    • Acknowledged the issue and reverted the problematic content update.
    • Provided a workaround: booting into Safe Mode, deleting the specific CrowdStrike driver file (C-00000291*.sys), and rebooting normally.
  • Community Concerns:

    • Some users expressed concerns about the security risks associated with kernel-level anti-cheat software like Falcon Sensor, emphasizing the need for extreme care during development to avoid catastrophic failures.
    • Others highlighted the difficulty of implementing the workaround at scale, especially for organizations with many remote endpoints.
  • Humor and Frustration: The Reddit thread reflects the frustration and stress experienced by IT professionals dealing with this unexpected crisis through humorous comments.


  • Necessity of an Operating System:

    • Users question whether a full-fledged operating system is necessary for lift control, suggesting simpler state machines might suffice.
    • Some believe convenience for implementers rather than reliability drives the decision to use complex OSes.
  • Role of Windows in Lift Operation:

    • Users discuss the potential use of a Windows-based HMI (Human-Machine Interface) for control and monitoring, acknowledging that the lift's core controller might not run Windows.
  • Security Concerns:

    • Users debate the necessity of security software like Crowdstrike on lift systems.
    • Some argue it's overkill, while others highlight potential risks of networked lifts being vulnerable to attacks.
  • Network Connectivity:

    • Users express surprise and concern over lifts being connected to a network, let alone the internet.
    • They question the need for remote monitoring and maintenance in this context.
  • Alternative Solutions:

    • Some users propose simpler solutions like dedicated hardware controllers instead of relying on general-purpose computers running operating systems.
  • Technical Feasibility:

    • Users discuss the technical feasibility of using alternative methods for patient data access during a system outage.
    • Suggestions include whiteboards and QR codes to store limited patient information.
  • HIPAA Compliance:

    • Concerns are raised regarding HIPAA compliance when considering alternative data storage and access methods.
    • Users highlight potential risks associated with storing sensitive patient information outside secure EHR systems.
  • Workflow Impact:

    • The impact on hospital workflows during a system outage is discussed, emphasizing medication administration safety and the role of automated dispensing systems like Pyxis in minimizing errors.
    • Users point out the significant increase in paperwork and administrative burden when relying on manual processes.
  • System Architecture:

    • Users delve into the technical architecture of healthcare systems, questioning why critical components like medication dispensing cabinets might run on operating systems like Windows.
    • They express concerns about potential vulnerabilities associated with using widely-deployed operating systems in sensitive healthcare environments.
  • Technical Challenges of Migrating from Windows:

    • Users note that migrating healthcare systems from Windows to other operating systems presents significant hurdles, including:
      • Auditing and Compliance: Demonstrating compliance with stringent healthcare regulations is time-sensitive. Existing Windows-based systems offer a faster path to proving security compared to alternative operating systems.
      • Dependency Chains: Many medical devices rely on Windows drivers or exhibit superior functionality within the Windows environment.
  • Human Factors:

    • Users highlight the importance of user experience and staff familiarity:
      • Staff Training and Comfort: Healthcare professionals may lack technical expertise, so a familiar Windows interface minimizes training requirements and reduces stress during critical situations.
      • Change Management: Hospitals tend to be conservative institutions, prioritizing stability and minimizing risk.
  • Billing and Insurance Complexity:

    • Users point out the intricate nature of healthcare billing and insurance reimbursement processes, requiring frequent software updates and adjustments. This complexity adds another layer of difficulty to migrating to new systems.
  • Network Connectivity in Healthcare:

    • Users argue that modern healthcare relies heavily on network connectivity for telemedicine, remote interpretation of medical images (teleradiology), EHR sharing, insurance billing, and access to patient information from referred sources.
    • They emphasize that disconnecting medical devices

5. Multisatellite data depicts a record-breaking methane leak from a well blowout (pubs.acs.org | Archive)
188 points by belter | 2024-07-19 22:42:25 | 101 comments

Dehyped title: Satellite and aircraft data quantify methane emissions from the 2023 Karaturun East oil well blowout.


  • Methane Leaks are a Serious Environmental Problem: The text emphasizes that methane leaks pose a significant threat to our planet due to their potent greenhouse gas effect, contributing heavily to climate change.

  • Advanced Satellite Technology is Revolutionizing Methane Leak Detection: Scientists are now using powerful satellites equipped with specialized instruments like TROPOMI, PRISMA, EMIT, EnMAP, and GHGSat to pinpoint and measure methane emissions with remarkable accuracy. These satellites can even identify the source of leaks, such as those originating from oil and gas infrastructure.

  • Imaging Spectroscopy Plays a Key Role: This technique analyzes the unique way methane absorbs and reflects light, allowing researchers to precisely locate and quantify emissions. Think of it like a fingerprint for methane in the atmosphere.

  • Validation Ensures Accuracy: To make sure these new detection methods are reliable, scientists conduct rigorous validation studies. They compare satellite-derived methane emission estimates with measurements taken on the ground to confirm their accuracy.

  • Modeling Methane Dispersion Helps Understand Impact: Atmospheric models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, simulate how methane plumes spread in the atmosphere. This helps researchers understand the full extent of a leak and its potential effects on air quality.

  • Real-World Examples Demonstrate Success: The text highlights successful cases where these advanced techniques have been used to detect and quantify methane leaks:

    • A massive methane leak in Kazakhstan was identified using satellite observations.
    • A high-resolution satellite successfully pinpointed and measured methane emissions from an active gas leak in the UK.
  • International Organizations are Leading the Charge: Groups like the IEA (International Energy Agency) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) are actively involved in monitoring and reducing methane emissions globally. The IEA maintains a Methane Tracker database, while UNEP's Methane Alert and Response System (MARS) aims to quickly identify and address significant methane leaks worldwide.

  • The Karaturun East Blowout: A Case Study: This event, which occurred on June 9, 2023, at the Karaturun East oil field in Kazakhstan, serves as a prime example of how these technologies are used in real-world scenarios.

    • Satellites like Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI, PRISMA, EMIT, EnMAP, and GHGSat were crucial in detecting and quantifying the methane plume released from the blowout.
    • By analyzing satellite imagery and incorporating wind data, scientists estimated the emission rate of methane, which varied over time.

    • Data from the VIIRS FIRMS product was used to track active fires at the site, providing insights into the potential for combustion of the released methane.

  • Comparison with Other Blowouts: The Karaturun East event is compared to other major blowouts like Aliso Canyon (2015), Ohio (2018), and Louisiana (2019) to highlight its scale and significance in terms of methane emissions.


  • Survival and Adaptation: Users believe humanity will survive climate change, either through adaptation and technological advancements or by enduring a more resource-constrained existence. Some anticipate political challenges arising from these changes.

  • Ethical Considerations: Users emphasize the importance of compassion and collective action in addressing climate change, viewing it as an existential threat to sapience and intelligence. They debate the responsibility of individuals versus corporations in mitigating climate change impacts.

  • Economic Impacts: Users discuss the potential for both wealthy and poor nations to be disproportionately affected by climate change. Some highlight the vulnerability of wealthy nations reliant on unsustainable practices, while others point out the lack of resources available to poorer countries for adaptation.

  • Technological Solutions: Users propose various technological solutions, including building resilient infrastructure (e.g., stilt houses), reducing livestock populations, and developing methane-detector-activated igniters to mitigate methane leaks during blowouts. They acknowledge the challenges of implementing such solutions and emphasize the need to prioritize extinguishing fires before addressing methane release.

  • Environmental Impact: Users express concern about the environmental impact of methane leaks and question whether current climate models adequately account for these events. They advocate for stricter regulations on fossil fuel companies and suggest exploring alternative energy sources like solar power.

  • Geopolitical Implications: Users debate the role of international cooperation in addressing climate change, suggesting carbon border taxes as a potential incentive for emission reduction. Some express skepticism about the effectiveness of such measures and call for more aggressive actions against major polluters.

  • Elon Musk's Involvement: Users offer contrasting perspectives on Elon Musk's contributions to climate change mitigation. Some praise his efforts through SpaceX, while others criticize his support for political candidates who oppose environmental policies.

6. Doom on Playdate (devforum.play.date | Archive)
35 points by codetrotter | 2024-07-20 01:10:31 | 5 comments

Dehyped title: Developer ports Doom to Playdate handheld console using STM32Doom and Chocolate Doom source code.


  • Initial Success: Nic successfully ported Doom to the Playdate, overcoming linker issues with libc references. He used STM32Doom (based on Chocolate Doom) as a foundation and credits the well-organized nature of the Doom engine for making the port possible.
  • Early Challenges: While running the game was a major milestone, getting it playable presented new hurdles. Nic encountered crashes in both the simulator and on the device when attempting to implement controls.

  • Rendering Improvements: Nic focused on enhancing the visual quality by experimenting with dithering techniques. He used a blue noise texture map to create a more visually appealing image.

  • Crank Integration: Nic incorporated the Playdate's crank for using the Gatling gun, adding a unique gameplay element.

  • Future Plans: Nic considered switching to Doom Chocolate for better code maintainability and support. He also acknowledged the need to address sound and music implementation, which he hadn't tackled yet due to its complexity.

  • Community Response: Nic's progress garnered significant excitement within the Playdate community, with many praising his achievement and expressing eagerness to try it out.

Technical Details:

  • Porting Base: STM32Doom (Chocolate Doom variant)
  • Challenges Overcome: Linker issues related to libc references, simulator and device crashes during gameplay implementation.
  • Rendering Techniques: Blue noise dithering for improved visual quality.
  • Unique Control Scheme: Crank used for Gatling gun fire.
  • Future Work: Potential switch to Doom Chocolate, sound and music implementation.


  • Technical Feasibility: Users discuss the technical feasibility of running Doom on lower-end hardware, specifically mentioning "fast doom" as a potential basis for ports. They also debate the refresh rate limitations of e-ink displays and whether Memory LCD technology could be a viable alternative for gaming consoles.

  • Playdate Display Preferences: Some users express a desire for a color e-ink display on the Playdate, citing benefits such as enhanced visuals and extended battery life. Others acknowledge the cost constraints associated with high refresh rate e-ink displays suitable for gaming.

7. What happened to BERT and T5? (www.yitay.net | Archive)
153 points by fzliu | 2024-07-19 18:54:26 | 47 comments

Dehyped title: Encoder-Decoder vs Decoder-Only Architectures: A Comparative Analysis for Large Language Models


  • Encoder-Decoder vs. Decoder-Only Models:

    • Both are autoregressive models, meaning they predict the next token in a sequence based on previous tokens.
    • Encoder-decoder architectures have separate encoder and decoder components. The encoder processes the input sequence, and the decoder generates the output sequence.
    • Decoder-only models (like GPT) use a single decoder component for both encoding and decoding.
  • Pros and Cons:

    • Encoder-Decoder:

      • Allows for more complex attention mechanisms on the encoder side without being restricted by causality.
      • Can offload less important context to the encoder, potentially leading to smaller encoder sizes.
      • Requires fixed input and target lengths, which can lead to wasted compute if inputs are shorter than the allocated budget.
    • Decoder-Only:

      • Simpler architecture with fewer components.
      • More flexible in terms of input and output lengths.
  • Denoising Objectives:

    • Denoising objectives involve training a model to reconstruct corrupted or noisy text.
    • They are often used as complementary objectives to causal language modeling (CLM).
    • Training with denoising objectives can improve performance on various tasks, especially code generation.
  • Bidirectional Attention:

    • Allows the model to attend to both past and future tokens during training.
    • Can be beneficial at smaller scales but may become less important as model size increases.
  • The Decline of BERT-like Models:

    • BERT models are primarily encoder-based and have largely been superseded by more flexible autoregressive models like T5.
    • The shift towards autoregressive models is driven by the desire for a single, general-purpose model capable of performing various tasks.


  • Effectiveness of LLMs vs. MLM: Users debate the superiority of large language models (LLMs) over masked language models (MLMs). Some argue that LLMs, trained with multi-objective loss functions encompassing diverse skills like coding and translation, possess a deeper understanding of the world compared to MLMs. Others suggest that scaling existing encoder-decoder architectures like BERT could potentially rival LLM performance.

  • Computational Costs: Users discuss the computational costs associated with different model architectures. It is noted that encoder-decoder models with 2N parameters can have comparable compute costs to decoder-only models with N parameters, despite the difference in parameter count. This is attributed to the ability to process input sequences in parallel across the encoder and decoder components.

  • Practicality and Deployment: Users acknowledge the practical challenges of deploying extremely large language models due to resource constraints. They highlight the emergence of more efficient models like SetFit and FastFit, which enable few-shot learning capabilities with reduced computational overhead.

  • Continued Relevance of BERT-like Models: Users question the perceived obsolescence of BERT-style models in light of LLM advancements. Some argue that BERT and its variants remain competitive for specific tasks like text classification, clustering, and retrieval, particularly when considering deployment feasibility. They cite recent research demonstrating the continued effectiveness of these models.

  • Emerging Trends and Alternatives: Users express interest in exploring alternative model architectures and training paradigms beyond traditional LLMs and MLMs. The discussion touches upon the potential for "LMLM" models, which combine aspects of both approaches.

8. FCC votes to limit prison telecom charges (worthrises.org | Archive)
854 points by Avshalom | 2024-07-19 11:33:45 | 385 comments

Dehyped title: FCC Caps Prison Phone Call Rates to End Predatory Pricing Practices.


  • The FCC has taken significant action to regulate phone call rates within prisons, jails, and detention centers. This move is being celebrated by various advocacy groups who have long fought against exploitative pricing practices.

  • Previously, incarcerated individuals and their families faced exorbitant fees for phone calls, which created a financial burden and hindered communication crucial for rehabilitation and maintaining family ties.

  • The FCC's new rules aim to establish "just and reasonable" rates for all phone and video calls. This will provide much-needed relief to millions of families struggling with the high costs of staying connected with loved ones behind bars.

  • Beyond capping call rates, the FCC is also addressing other abusive practices, such as outrageous fees and site commissions, which further exploited consumers.

  • Advocates emphasize the importance of communication for incarcerated individuals. Maintaining contact with family, legal counsel, and clergy is seen as a fundamental human right that supports rehabilitation and successful reintegration into society.

  • The FCC's decision is being lauded as a major victory for prison justice. It acknowledges the systemic issues within the prison phone industry and takes concrete steps to address them.


  • Retribution vs. Rehabilitation:

    • Some users believe harsh punishments, including execution, are justified retribution for crimes and act as a deterrent against future vigilantism.
    • Others argue that rehabilitation is a more effective approach to addressing criminal behavior and preventing further violence.
  • Cultural Differences in Justice Systems:

    • Users discuss the influence of cultural values on justice systems, citing differences between the United States and countries like Norway.
    • Some suggest American individualism contributes to a desire for harsh punishments.
    • Others highlight the Scandinavian emphasis on rehabilitation and social welfare.
  • The Morality of Vigilantism:

    • Users debate the ethical implications of vigilantism.
    • Some argue it is morally equivalent to the crimes it seeks to prevent.
    • Others express understanding for the desire for vengeance but caution against resorting to violence.
  • Government's Role in Preventing Vigilantism:

    • Users acknowledge the government's responsibility to prevent vigilantism while recognizing the limitations of legal intervention in addressing deeply personal desires for retribution.
  • Ethical Concerns Regarding Inmate Fees:

    • Users express strong disapproval of charging inmates for their incarceration, particularly when charges are dropped or sentences are overturned.
    • They view it as unjust and exploitative, comparing it unfavorably to hotel cancellation policies.
    • Some users highlight the potential for double-charging if beds are reused after early release.
  • Legal Implications of Inmate Fees:

    • Users raise concerns about the constitutionality of such fees, suggesting they may violate the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.
  • Alternatives and Solutions to Inmate Fees:

    • Users propose alternative fee structures, such as tying fees to net worth, but acknowledge potential complexities in implementation due to factors like trusts and asset concealment.
  • Societal Impact of Inmate Fees:

    • Users lament the broader societal implications of these practices, arguing that they contribute to a system that disproportionately burdens marginalized communities and undermines faith in the justice system.
  • Corporate Behavior Regarding Prison Phone Services:

    • Some users believe companies prioritize profit above ethical considerations and will exploit legal loopholes.
    • Others argue that expecting companies to act solely for the common good is unrealistic and that their primary function is to generate profits within legal boundaries.
  • Government Regulation of Prison Phone Services:

    • Users debate the role of government in regulating markets, with some advocating for stricter oversight to prevent exploitation and ensure fair pricing.
    • Others express skepticism towards government intervention, suggesting it can lead to inefficiencies and unintended consequences.
  • Legal Interpretation of Prison Phone Pricing:

    • Users speculate on potential legal challenges to the phone pricing practices, citing the Chevron ruling and arguing that the lack of specific price regulations in existing law could allow companies to set prices at their discretion until further legislation is enacted.
  • Ethical Considerations Regarding Prison Phone Pricing:

    • Users grapple with the ethical implications of charging exorbitant prices for essential communication services within prisons, questioning whether profit maximization should supersede basic human rights and access to communication with loved ones.
    • The potential psychological impact on families separated by incarceration is also raised.
  • Government Responsibility Regarding Prison Phone Contracts:

    • Users express concern about the role of government in allowing for excessive pricing by service providers, suggesting that contracted rates should be implemented

9. Playing guitar tablatures in Rust (agourlay.github.io | Archive)
118 points by lukastyrychtr | 2024-07-19 16:57:11 | 44 comments

Dehyped title: Ruxguitar: An Open-Source Guitar Tablature Viewer and Player Built in Rust Using Iced and Tokio.


  • Ruxguitar: A Rust-Based Guitar Tablature Player: The author details their journey creating Ruxguitar, a tablature player inspired by TuxGuitar but written entirely in Rust.

  • Audio Playback Engine: The core of Ruxguitar is its audio playback engine, which uses the cpal crate for low-level audio output and relies on a custom event system to manage note timing and playback.

    • The author emphasizes the importance of precise timing for musical accuracy.
    • They describe how events are loaded from .gp5 files and sorted chronologically.
  • UI Integration with Iced: The UI is built using the iced framework, a popular choice for building cross-platform graphical user interfaces in Rust.

    • The author highlights the use of iced::Subscription to bridge the gap between the audio player and the UI, allowing for real-time updates based on playback position.
  • Synchronization Challenges: Achieving smooth synchronization between the audio playback and the tablature display was a significant challenge.

    • The author explains how they used a tokio::sync::watch channel to communicate the current timestamp from the audio thread to the UI thread, enabling the tablature cursor and note highlighting to follow along accurately.
  • Future Development: The author acknowledges that Ruxguitar is still in its early stages and outlines plans for future improvements:

    • Support for additional file formats beyond .gp5.
    • Enhanced tablature display with information like rhythm, time signature, and key signature.
    • Features like repeating measures and playback speed control.
  • Lessons Learned: The author reflects on the experience of building a complex software project solo, emphasizing the importance of perseverance and discipline in overcoming technical hurdles. They express gratitude to the TuxGuitar team for providing a valuable reference implementation.


  • Rocksmith Alternatives: Users suggest Soundslice as a viable alternative to Rocksmith, highlighting its speed training feature, compatibility with various music formats (including tabs and sheet music), and built-in tab editor. Other alternatives mentioned include Tonelib Jam, Yousician, and Neothesia.

  • Previous Rocksmith Version: Some users point out that the previous version of Rocksmith still functions and contains a substantial library of user-created songs, including those by Taylor Swift.

  • Rust as Programming Language: The author of Iced (the Rust-based Rocksmith clone) is present in the discussion and open to answering questions. Users inquire about the rationale behind choosing Rust over languages with garbage collection, prompting a debate on the tradeoffs between performance, memory management, and development complexity.

  • General Sentiment Towards Rust: Some users express weariness towards the current popularity of Rust, suggesting that it might be a passing fad. Others acknowledge the benefits of Rust's speed and efficiency while recognizing its steeper learning curve.

10. Automerge: A library of data structures for building collaborative applications (automerge.org | Archive)
86 points by surprisetalk | 2024-07-16 14:03:44 | 9 comments

Dehyped title: Automerge is a CRDT library for building collaborative applications enabling automatic merging of concurrent changes across devices.


  • Automerge is designed for building collaborative applications. It's a library of data structures that makes it easier to create software where multiple users can work together on the same data in real-time.

  • Automatic merging is a key feature. Automerge uses a concept called Conflict-Free Replicated Data Types (CRDTs). This means that changes made by different users on different devices are automatically merged together without any conflicts, eliminating the need for a central server to manage updates.

  • Network flexibility is another advantage. You can use Automerge with any connection-oriented network protocol, such as client-server or peer-to-peer. It even supports unidirectional messaging, allowing you to share Automerge files through email attachments or file servers.

  • Portability across platforms is ensured. Automerge is implemented in both JavaScript and Rust, with Foreign Function Interface (FFI) bindings that allow it to work seamlessly on a wide range of platforms, including iOS, Electron, Chrome, Safari, Edge, Firefox, and more.


  • Comparison to Other Technologies: Users discuss Automerge in relation to other collaborative editing technologies like Yjs, CouchDB, Reflect, PartyKit, and Microsoft's Fluid Framework. Some users express a preference for Yjs due to its performance benchmarks and existing integrations (e.g., the WebRTC adapter), while others highlight Automerge's potential advantages, particularly its first-party React support.

  • Documentation and Usability: Users point out that Yjs documentation can be lacking in certain areas, making it challenging to implement custom solutions or work with specific data models. Conversely, Reflect is praised for its developer-friendliness.

  • Use Cases: Users share examples of how they have used collaborative editing libraries in real-world projects, such as presence chat, menu syncing, overlay graphics for livestreams, and collaborative document editing.

11. A search engine by and for the federal government (search.gov | Archive)
133 points by pajtai | 2024-07-19 17:43:44 | 24 comments

Dehyped title: Search.gov Provides Free, Secure Search Solutions for Federal Government Websites


  • Search.gov is a free search engine designed specifically for federal government websites. It currently powers searches on over 2,000 government domains, representing roughly one-third of all federal websites.

  • Key Benefits:

    • Security and Compliance: Built with the unique security and compliance needs of government agencies in mind.
    • Highly Configurable: No coding required! Agencies can easily customize their search experience using a user-friendly interface.
    • Dedicated Support: The Search.gov team provides hands-on assistance to agencies, from initial setup to ongoing SEO optimization.
    • Easy Access: Getting started with Search.gov is straightforward and hassle-free.
  • Resources for Success:

    • Indexing Guidance: Detailed training and resources are available to help agencies properly index their websites for optimal search results.
    • Search Result Management: Tips and best practices for improving search result quality and addressing any issues with missing or inaccurate results.
    • Site Redesign Support: A dedicated guide helps agencies maintain effective search functionality after website redesigns or migrations.
  • Additional Features and Support:

    • Login Assistance: Email support is available for users experiencing login difficulties.
    • Re-indexing and Sitemap Submission: Agencies can easily request re-indexing of their sites or submit updated sitemaps to ensure fresh search results.
    • Results API Documentation: Comprehensive documentation on the features and capabilities of Search.gov's Results API, which allows developers to integrate search functionality into their applications.
    • User Management: Administrators can easily add or remove users from their Search.gov account through the Admin Center.
  • Transparency and Collaboration:

    • Search.gov is an initiative of the GSA's Technology Transformation Services (TTS).
    • The platform is committed to transparency, with release notes, a product roadmap, and information on security and compliance readily available.
    • Agencies can submit feature requests to contribute to the ongoing development and improvement of Search.gov.


  • Praise for Search.gov: Users express admiration for the new search engine, highlighting its user-friendly interface and effectiveness. Some compare it favorably to other sign-in experiences like Google's.

  • Integration with Other Government Services: Users note the integration of Login.gov with other government services like the Social Security Administration (SSA), suggesting a broader adoption of this platform.

  • Concerns about Third-Party Dependencies: Some users raise concerns about Search.gov's reliance on third-party tools like Google Tag Manager and Crazy Egg, questioning potential data privacy implications.

  • Limited Scope of Search: Users point out that Search.gov only searches within its own platform and not across all government websites. They suggest using USA.gov for broader searches.

  • Transparency and Open Source: Users appreciate the availability of Search.gov's source code on GitHub, indicating a commitment to transparency and open-source development practices.

  • Government's Digital Transformation Efforts: Users acknowledge the ongoing efforts by the government to modernize its digital infrastructure and improve citizen access to services.

12. Show HN: Sendune – open-source HTML email designer (news.ycombinator.com | Archive)
314 points by samdung | 2024-07-19 15:22:40 | 80 comments


No summary available


  • Email Client Evolution: Users express mixed opinions on the lack of evolution in email clients. Some appreciate the stability and consistency it provides, allowing emails from decades ago to remain readable today. Others believe that some evolution is necessary to adapt to changing contexts like screen sizes, computing power, and bandwidth.

  • HTML Email Challenges: Users highlight the difficulties associated with creating HTML emails due to inconsistent support across different email clients. They discuss the need for standardization and simpler solutions, mentioning tools like MJML as potential workarounds.

  • Security Concerns: Users debate the relationship between limited HTML/CSS support in email clients and security. Some argue that reducing the attack surface makes email more secure, while others express skepticism about this claim.

  • Nostalgia and Industry Practices: Users reminisce about their early experiences with HTML emails and discuss the persistence of outdated technologies like Lotus Notes. They also touch upon the influence of advertising on email client development and the need for compatibility to reach a wider audience.

13. 10-acre underground home and gardens in Fresno (2023) [video] (www.youtube.com | Archive)
197 points by 8bitsrule | 2024-07-16 18:07:57 | 60 comments

Dehyped title: Baldasar's Subterranean Complex Features Innovative Design for Day Resort and Underground Residence


  • Baldasaurus's Underground Home:

    • Driven by a desire to create a unique retreat from the heat, Baldasaurus transformed his unsuitable land into an elaborate underground home.
    • This multi-level dwelling included living spaces, a kitchen, social areas, and even a chapel.
  • Citrus Farming Innovation:

    • Initially facing challenges with hardpan soil, Baldasaurus ingeniously grafted citrus varieties onto hardy sour orange rootstock to enable successful cultivation.
    • Due to limited sunlight penetration, the citrus trees grew vertically, making harvesting convenient.
  • Engineering and Excavation:

    • Baldasaurus utilized two mules pulling a Fresno scraper for efficient excavation, allowing him to create larger tunnels like the car tunnel envisioned for his underground resort.
  • Unique Features:

    • The home included a tri-level aquarium where Baldasaurus kept fish caught from the San Joaquin River, showcasing his curiosity and experimental nature.
    • He incorporated skylights to allow natural light into the underground space, fostering a connection with the outside world.
  • Social Connection and Legacy:

    • Baldasaurus was deeply social and welcomed visitors on Sundays to share his creation and vision.
    • His nephew Rick described him as someone who wasn't limited by conventional wisdom, highlighting his innovative spirit.


  • Ad Blocking: Users report varying experiences with ad blockers on YouTube, with some finding them effective while others encounter issues. Suggestions include using uBlock Origin for optimal performance.

  • Flooding Concerns: Users express curiosity about the Underground Gardens' susceptibility to flooding and inquire about drainage systems. The video creator confirms the presence of drainage systems and sump pits designed to collect and reuse water, minimizing flood risk.

  • Structural Integrity: Users raise questions about the structure's ability to withstand earthquakes, a potential risk in California. The historical resilience of the Underground Gardens (98 years) is noted, but no specific information regarding earthquake preparedness is provided.

  • Underground Living Appeal: Some users express childhood dreams of creating underground living spaces, acknowledging the practical challenges related to water tables and ventilation.

  • Thermal Mass: Users discuss the potential benefits of underground construction for thermal mass and insulation, comparing it to above-ground structures. The concept of controlling thermal inputs and utilizing materials like straw bales is mentioned.

14. Want to spot a deepfake? Look for the stars in their eyes (ras.ac.uk | Archive)
232 points by jonbaer | 2024-07-18 14:34:42 | 121 comments

Dehyped title: Royal Astronomical Society Announces NAM 2024 Conference Focused on Astronomy and Space Science.


  • The NAM 2024 conference is focused on astronomy and related fields. It's being sponsored by three key organizations:

    • The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS): This well-established society (founded in 1820) promotes astronomical research, publishes journals, recognizes achievements through awards, maintains a library, supports education, and represents UK astronomy internationally. They use peer review for both journal submissions and press releases.
    • The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC): Part of UK Research and Innovation, STFC funds research in particle physics, astronomy, gravitational research, and space science. They operate national laboratories and support UK involvement in international facilities like CERN and the ESO telescopes. Their Astronomy and Space Science program provides grants for research and technical support at centers like the UK Astronomy Technology Centre.
    • The University of Hull’s E.A. Milne Centre: This center focuses on understanding the evolution of structures in the universe, from stars to galaxies and larger cosmic formations. They use observations, theory, and computational methods, involving both postgraduate and undergraduate students. The center also engages in outreach activities to share their passion for astronomy.
  • The content also includes:

    • Links to additional information about the RAS and STFC.
    • A list of recent news articles related to space weather and exoplanet research.
    • Information about the RAS, including membership details and ways to follow them on social media.
    • A statement about cookie usage on the website.


  • Effectiveness of Reflection Analysis:

    • Users express mixed opinions on the effectiveness of using eye reflections to detect deepfakes. Some find it helpful when combined with other methods, while others are skeptical due to natural variations in reflections caused by factors like eye alignment and lighting. Concerns are raised about the software's accuracy, with instances of both missing genuine reflections and adding spurious ones.
  • Real-World Applicability Challenges:

    • Users point out that professional photographs often involve post-processing techniques like adding catch lights, which could lead to false positives when using reflection analysis. The prevalence of computational photography in smartphone images is also highlighted as a potential complication, as these images may exhibit artificial reflections.
  • Need for Improved Detection Metrics:

    • Users emphasize the limitations of current metrics in accurately assessing deepfakes, particularly their inability to capture subtle nuances like realistic eye reflections. This underscores the need for more sophisticated evaluation methods that can account for the complexities of image generation and manipulation.
  • AGI Implications:

    • Some users speculate that the exhaustion of detection tricks could be a sign of progress towards achieving artificial general intelligence (AGI).
  • "Perfect Pixel" Heuristic Debate:

    • Users debate the validity of identifying AI-generated images based on pixel perfection. While some argue that human-created art can also exhibit high levels of detail, others contend that AI models are increasingly capable of mimicking imperfections like blur or noise.
  • Evolving Deepfake Capabilities:

    • Users discuss the advancements in deepfake technology, noting that newer models are becoming more sophisticated in rendering realistic gestures and head positions. The availability of training data is identified as a key factor influencing deepfake quality.
  • Humorous Observations:

    • Users inject humor into the discussion by referencing stereotypical AI errors like extra fingers and suggesting outlandish visual cues for identifying fakes.

15. The Later Years of Douglas Adams (www.filfre.net | Archive)
75 points by doppp | 2024-07-19 16:29:30 | 15 comments

Dehyped title: "Starship Titanic" game design flaws contrast with Adams's impactful "Last Chance to See".


  • The article delves into two distinct aspects of Douglas Adams's work: his involvement in the video game "Starship Titanic" and his passion for conservation reflected in the book "Last Chance to See."

  • Regarding "Starship Titanic," the article highlights the troubled collaboration between Adams and Terry Jones, ultimately leading to a strained relationship. The resulting novel adaptation was met with critical disapproval, deemed unfunny and lacking the charm of Adams's previous works.

The game itself faced criticism for its cumbersome navigation system, drawing comparisons to Myst-style games but amplifying their inherent frustrations. Players struggled with navigating static, pre-rendered nodes and inconsistent rotation angles, making exploration tedious and confusing. The design prioritized artificial difficulty over intuitive gameplay, often requiring players to find hidden elements visible only from specific viewpoints.

  • Shifting focus to "Last Chance to See," the article emphasizes Adams's deep affection for this work, considering it his best despite its limited initial recognition. The author connects Adams's passion for conservation and atheism to his dedication to documenting endangered species. The book was later adapted into a BBC documentary series featuring Adams and zoologist Mark Carwardine.

  • Intriguingly, the article mentions the subsequent release of "Last Chance to See" as a CD-ROM by The Voyager Company, potentially aiming to reach a broader audience. This prompts a discussion about the CD-ROM's success compared to the book's initial reception.

  • Finally, the article offers a critical assessment of Eoin Colfer's continuation of the "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" series, deeming it an inadequate substitute for Adams's original work.


  • Douglas Adams' Writing Style and Legacy: Users express admiration for Douglas Adams' unique writing style, characterized by humor and thought-provoking concepts. Some users lament the limited number of Dirk Gently books, wishing there were more installments in the series.

  • Relatability to Software Development: Users draw parallels between Adams' struggles with deadlines and the pressures faced in software development, acknowledging the challenge of meeting expectations within tight timeframes.

  • The Nature of Creativity: Users reflect on the difficulty of creative endeavors, suggesting that Adams' writing process may have been particularly demanding due to his high standards and desire for originality.

  • Imaginative Scenarios: Users engage in playful speculation about alternate universes where Adams continued writing the Dirk Gently series or explored other comedic science fiction concepts.

16. Kompute – Vulkan Alternative to CUDA (github.com | Archive)
58 points by coffeeaddict1 | 2024-07-19 17:43:53 | 8 comments

Dehyped title: Kompute is an open-source Vulkan-based GPU compute framework designed for high-performance cross-vendor data processing.


  • Kompute: A Vulkan-Based GPU Compute Framework

    • Kompute is an open-source framework designed to simplify and accelerate general-purpose GPU computing using the Vulkan API.

    • It's backed by the Linux Foundation and aims to provide a standardized, efficient way for developers to leverage the power of GPUs across various vendors (AMD, Qualcomm, NVIDIA).

  • Motivation: Addressing Vulkan SDK Complexity

    • Many machine learning and deep learning frameworks (PyTorch, TensorFlow, Alibaba DNN, Tencent NCNN) are integrating Vulkan for mobile GPU support.
    • The Vulkan SDK, while powerful, requires a significant amount of verbose code to handle non-compute aspects. This leads to redundant boilerplate code across different frameworks.
  • Kompute's Solution: Augmenting, Not Hiding Vulkan

    • Kompute doesn't aim to hide the Vulkan API but rather enhances it with a focus on GPU computing capabilities.
    • It provides abstractions and utilities that streamline common tasks, reducing development time and complexity.
  • Key Features:

    • Blazing Fast: Optimized for high-performance GPU data processing.
    • Mobile-Enabled: Supports a wide range of mobile GPUs.
    • Asynchronous: Allows for efficient overlapping of computations and data transfers.
  • Documentation and Testing:

    • Comprehensive documentation is available, covering installation, usage, and API reference.
    • Unit tests are included for both C++ and Python code, ensuring code quality and stability.
    • Tests can be run on CPUs using Swiftshader for development without requiring a dedicated GPU.
  • Community and Support:

    • Kompute is an active open-source project with contributions from various developers.
    • The Linux Foundation backing provides support and resources for the project's growth.


  • Vulkan Advantages: Users highlight Vulkan's lower-level control over memory allocation and resource synchronization compared to OpenCL. They mention Vulkan's ability to explicitly allocate resources at specific memory addresses, making it suitable for embedded devices.

  • Vulkan Limitations: Users acknowledge current limitations in Vulkan compute shaders, including the lack of bfloat16 support in shaders, shader work graphs (GPU-driven shader control flow), and inline PTX (though inline GCN/RDNA/GEN is available). They note that Vulkan recently gained the ability to dispatch CUDA kernels for functionalities not yet supported.

  • Real-World Experience: Users express interest in Vulkan compute shaders as a cross-platform alternative to vendor-specific solutions like CUDA and Metal. They inquire about real-world experiences comparing Vulkan compute shaders with OpenCL and seek information on Kompute's ease of use.

  • Framework Support: Users point out that PyTorch already has Vulkan support, suggesting the need for Kompute to integrate with popular deep learning frameworks for wider adoption.

  • CUDA Kernel Language: Users discuss CUDA's use of C/C++ for kernel development, contrasting it with shader languages typically used in graphics programming. They acknowledge that while CUDA uses standard C/C++, its runtime environment is distinct and specialized.

  • Desire for Alternatives: Users express a desire for alternatives to CUDA's ecosystem, citing the emergence of tooling aimed at avoiding its specific runtime and language requirements.

17. Is Mars Habitable? (1907) (people.wku.edu | Archive)
22 points by kimmk | 2024-07-16 22:55:14 | 3 comments

Dehyped title: Lowell's Martian canal theory faces criticism due to surface irregularities, water scarcity, and inaccurate temperature estimations.


  • The Debate: The passage delves into the ongoing debate about the habitability of Mars, specifically challenging Percival Lowell's theory of intelligent life on the planet.

  • Lowell's Claims: Lowell proposed that Mars harbors canals built by an advanced civilization to transport water for irrigation. He based this on his observations of seemingly straight lines on the Martian surface.

  • Counterarguments: The author presents several counterarguments to Lowell's theory, focusing on the harsh environmental conditions on Mars:

    • Temperature: Due to its thin atmosphere and distance from the sun, Mars experiences extremely cold temperatures, making it unlikely for liquid water to exist on the surface. This contradicts Lowell's idea of canals used for irrigation.

    • Atmospheric Pressure: The low atmospheric pressure on Mars would cause any liquid water to boil away.

    • Absence of Water Vapor: Scientific evidence suggests that water vapor cannot exist in Mars's atmosphere, further supporting the lack of liquid water necessary for life as we know it.

  • Alternative Explanation for "Canals": The author proposes a geological explanation for the observed "canals," suggesting they are natural features formed by the contraction and cracking of Mars's crust as it cooled over time.

  • Experiment Proposal: To test this hypothesis, the author suggests an experiment involving cooling clay cores encased in brittle material to simulate Martian conditions and observe if similar cracks form.

  • Respect for Lowell: Despite disagreeing with Lowell's conclusions, the author acknowledges his significant contributions to Martian astronomy through his meticulous observations and establishment of Lowell Observatory.


  • Appreciation for Historical Preservation: Users express gratitude for the effort to make Wallace's 1907 work on Martian habitability accessible.

  • Scientific Scrutiny: Users highlight a potential mathematical error in Chapter VI of the text, questioning the accuracy of an equation calculating the fourth root of one-hundredth as equal to one-sixth.

  • Comparison with Modern Research: Users draw parallels between Wallace's approach and contemporary Mars exploration efforts, noting his dismissal of Martian canals and intelligent life based on scientific reasoning. They also acknowledge the advancements in technology since 1907, emphasizing how fundamental questions about Mars persist despite evolving scientific understanding.

18. Debugging an evil Go runtime bug: From heat guns to kernel compiler flags (2017) (marcan.st | Archive)
143 points by goranmoomin | 2024-07-19 13:24:40 | 30 comments

Dehyped title: Go's stack allocation for vDSO calls, combined with GCC's -fstack-check, introduces race conditions when inline optimization is disabled in vDSO code (vclock_gettime.o).


  • A Go program was crashing intermittently on certain Linux kernels, leading the author to suspect a connection between the kernel's build configuration and the crashes.

  • To efficiently test this hypothesis, they used SHA-1 hashing to generate different kernel builds with CONFIG_OPTIMIZE_INLINING enabled or disabled based on the hash bits. This clever strategy allowed them to quickly narrow down which object files were likely causing the crashes.

  • The culprit was identified as arch/x86/entry/vdso/vclock_gettime.o, a file containing code for the vDSO (Virtual Dynamic Shared Object), a mechanism that allows user-space applications to perform certain system calls without entering kernel mode.

  • The author realized that Go relies on the vDSO for performance optimizations and implements its own custom calls to it instead of using standard Linux libraries. Enabling inlining optimization within the kernel led to subtle changes in how the vDSO handled time-related system calls, causing crashes in their Go program.

  • Specifically, the Go runtime function runtime·walltime was crashing intermittently when called from a multi-threaded environment (GOMAXPROCS > 1). Debugging revealed that the crash occurred within the kernel's vDSO implementation of clock_gettime.

  • The root cause was a stack probe inserted by the Go compiler when using hardening flags (-fstack-check). This probe checks for sufficient stack space, but the vDSO implementation wasn't designed to handle such a large requirement.

  • This mismatch led to a race condition: while the stack probe attempted to write 4 KiB ahead, other threads could overwrite that memory region. The overwritten memory likely belonged to other threads' stacks or contained critical data, ultimately causing crashes within runtime·walltime.

  • The solution involved increasing the stack size allocated for runtime·walltime before calling into the vDSO, ensuring sufficient space for the stack probe and eliminating the race condition.


  • Technical Analysis: Users discuss the technical details of the bug, including how Go's green threading model interacts with vDSOs. They explain that vDSOs run as userland code and rely on a sufficiently large stack, which can lead to corruption if not properly allocated. The discussion delves into the specifics of thread stacks in Linux, highlighting their demand-paged nature and the role of the RSP register.

  • Developer Skill: Users debate the significance of the 10x developer concept, suggesting that maintainability and code quality are equally important as writing speed. Some argue that developers who design for future ease of use deserve recognition alongside those who produce code quickly.

  • Platform Comparison: Users compare memory management techniques across different operating systems, noting that Grub allows for ignoring portions of physical memory on Linux, while Windows offers similar functionality through bcdedit.

19. The oldest known recording of a human voice [video] (www.bbc.com | Archive)
94 points by YeGoblynQueenne | 2024-07-15 22:49:43 | 21 comments

Dehyped title: Researchers reveal the oldest known recording of a human voice, predating Edison's phonograph by 20 years.


  • The article discusses Edouard-Léon Scott de Martinville's invention of the phonautograph in 1857, which predates Thomas Edison's phonograph by 20 years.

  • The phonautograph was capable of recording sound but couldn't play it back.

  • Researchers were able to use the phonautograph's recordings to create a digital audio file of a person singing "Au Clair de la Lune" in 1860, making it the oldest known recording of a human voice.

  • The article highlights the significance of this discovery for understanding the history of sound recording technology and its evolution over time.


  • Appreciation for Historical Recordings: Users express appreciation for the opportunity to hear early sound recordings, recognizing their historical significance and the technological advancements they represent. Some users highlight the beauty and unique qualities of these recordings, particularly those featuring religious recitations.

  • Desire for Concise Information: Some users prefer a more concise presentation of information, suggesting that a written article summarizing the content of the video along with a short audio clip would be more efficient.

  • Skepticism and Disappointment: A few users express skepticism or disappointment with the recordings, finding them underwhelming or lacking in immediate gratification. They suggest that the recordings are not inherently interesting or worth the time investment.

  • Contextual Understanding: Users discuss the historical context surrounding the invention of sound recording technology, acknowledging the pioneering nature of the work and the challenges faced by early inventors. Some users draw parallels to other periods of rapid technological advancement, highlighting the cultural impact of such innovations.

20. Instrumenting Python GIL with eBPF (coroot.com | Archive)
83 points by lukastyrychtr | 2024-07-19 14:31:04 | 20 comments

Dehyped title: eBPF Instrumentation Enables Measurement of Python GIL Lock Times in Containerized Environments


  • The Problem: The GIL in CPython (the standard Python implementation) allows only one thread to execute Python bytecode at a time, potentially leading to performance bottlenecks in multi-threaded applications. Understanding the impact of the GIL is crucial for optimizing Python code.

  • Coroot's Solution: eBPF Instrumentation

    • Coroot leverages Extended Berkeley Packet Filter (eBPF) programs to safely and efficiently monitor Python applications without requiring any code changes.
    • eBPF allows us to insert custom code into the Linux kernel, enabling low-overhead monitoring of system events.
  • Targeting pthread_cond_timedwait: Coroot focuses on the pthread_cond_timedwait function, which is commonly used for thread synchronization in Python. By instrumenting this function, we can track how long threads spend waiting to acquire the GIL.

  • eBPF Program Details:

    • Map Creation: Coroot defines an eBPF map called python_thread_locks to store timestamps when threads enter the pthread_cond_timedwait function. This map uses the thread's PID and TGID (Process ID and Thread Group ID) as keys and stores the timestamp as the value.

    • Entry Probe (pthread_cond_timedwait_enter): When a thread enters pthread_cond_timedwait, this eBPF program records the current time using bpf_ktime_get_ns() and stores it in the python_thread_locks map associated with the thread's PID/TGID.

    • Exit Probe (pthread_cond_timedwait_exit): When a thread exits pthread_cond_timedwait, this program retrieves the entry timestamp from the map. It then calculates the duration the thread spent waiting and sends this information as a python_thread_event to user space for analysis.

  • User Space Processing:

    • Coroot's user-space component receives the python_thread_events and uses a PID-to-container mapping to associate these events with specific containers. This allows for container-level GIL monitoring.
  • Benefits of eBPF:

    • Low Overhead: eBPF programs run within the kernel, minimizing performance impact on the monitored application.
    • Safety: eBPF programs are sandboxed and cannot modify kernel data structures or access user space memory directly, ensuring system stability.
    • Flexibility: eBPF allows for fine-grained instrumentation of various kernel functions and events, enabling a wide range of monitoring and analysis capabilities.
  • Coroot's GIL Monitoring Feature: This feature is available in Coroot v1.3.1 and provides valuable insights into the GIL's impact on Python application performance. By measuring lock durations, developers can identify potential bottlenecks and make informed decisions about optimization strategies.


  • Impact of GIL: Users debate the significance of the 3.6% GIL contention time, with some arguing it's negligible while others highlight its potential impact on cost savings and performance improvements, especially for CPU-bound tasks.

  • GIL Removal and Alternatives: Some users express skepticism about the effectiveness of removing the GIL entirely, citing potential trade-offs in single-threaded performance. Others suggest using libraries like NumPy that release the GIL or exploring alternative languages for performance-critical applications.

  • Practical Experiences with GIL: Users share anecdotes about encountering GIL-related issues in real-world projects, emphasizing the importance of understanding threading models and considering alternatives like multiprocessing or asyncio when dealing with parallelism.

  • Future of Python and Parallelism: Users discuss the upcoming GIL-free option in Python 3.13, expressing cautious optimism while acknowledging the need for further testing and refinement before widespread adoption.

21. AI paid for by Ads – the GPT-4o mini inflection point (batchmon.com | Archive)
197 points by thunderbong | 2024-07-19 19:28:39 | 163 comments

Dehyped title: GPT-4o Mini's low cost enables ad-supported dynamic AI content generation for potential profit.


  • The Rise of Affordable AI: OpenAI's new gpt-4o mini model is incredibly cheap to use, costing just $0.15 per million input tokens and $0.60 per million output tokens. This affordability opens up exciting possibilities for using AI in content creation.

  • AI-Powered Content Generation: The article proposes the idea of building a blog that generates articles on demand based on user search queries. While the generated content might not always be perfect, the low cost of AI makes this concept feasible.

  • Cost Analysis: The author demonstrates how to calculate the cost of generating an AI-written blog post using gpt-4o mini. They provide a specific example with a user query and estimate the total cost to be around $0.0005.

  • Potential for Profit: The article compares the cost of generating content with the potential revenue from ad impressions. Assuming an average ad revenue of $0.0026 per page view, even a small profit margin is possible.

  • The Future of the Internet?: The author speculates about the possibility of AI-generated content becoming dominant on the internet. They acknowledge that much of the existing web content is already SEO-driven and potentially low quality.

  • Existing Examples: The article mentions Websim as an example of a project using LLMs to dynamically generate an alternative internet experience. While Websim doesn't currently monetize its AI-generated content, it demonstrates the feasibility of this approach.


  • Content Saturation and Quality: Users express concern that AI-generated content could flood platforms like Spotify and Amazon, making it harder to discover high-quality work from human creators. They worry about a potential decline in originality and an increase in mediocre or biased content, reflecting the limitations of AI training data.

  • Platform Response and Technological Arms Race: Users anticipate a need for sophisticated filtering mechanisms on platforms to distinguish between human-created and AI-generated content. This could lead to a technological arms race where creators try to make their AI content appear more human, while platforms strive to identify and remove it.

  • Adaptation and the Evolving Creative Landscape: Some users acknowledge that the creative landscape is constantly evolving and that AI is simply another tool that will reshape how we create and consume content. They believe humans will adapt and continue producing valuable work even in a world saturated with AI-generated material.

  • Impact on Information Quality and Access: Users express concern about the potential for AI to degrade the quality of online information by generating rehashed summaries instead of original journalism. They fear a homogenization of viewpoints and a decline in investigative reporting.

  • Prioritizing High-Quality Content: Users emphasize the need to prioritize high-quality content over sheer quantity, lamenting the current state of search results that often favor SEO-optimized but superficial content. They advocate for platforms that curate and promote truly insightful and valuable information.

  • Bias, Manipulation, and Ethical Concerns: Users highlight the risk of centralized AI systems controlling access to information and potentially shaping user perceptions through biased algorithms or manipulated data. They express concern about the lack of transparency and accountability in such systems, which could lead to the spread of misinformation and the suppression of dissenting voices.

  • Opportunities for Innovation: Despite concerns, users also acknowledge the potential for AI to revolutionize search and information access. They envision competitive solutions emerging that leverage AI's capabilities while addressing ethical considerations and prioritizing user needs.

22. Foliate: Read e-books in style, navigate with ease (johnfactotum.github.io | Archive)
535 points by ingve | 2024-07-19 05:48:08 | 123 comments

Dehyped title: Foliate is an open-source eBook reader for Linux supporting various formats and features like annotation, text-to-speech, and advanced rendering options.


  • Foliate is an open-source eBook reader designed specifically for Linux. It's praised by OMG! Ubuntu as "The Best eBook Reader for Linux."

  • Extensive Format Support: Foliate can handle a wide range of eBook formats, including EPUB, Mobipocket, Kindle (AZW3), FB2, CBZ (comics), and PDF.

  • Reading Modes & Customization: You can choose between paginated mode (like a physical book) or scrolled mode for continuous reading. Foliate allows you to adjust font type, size, spacing, margins, and color schemes to personalize your reading experience.

  • Distraction-Free Reading: Window controls automatically hide when not in use, minimizing distractions and allowing you to focus on the text.

  • Intuitive Navigation: Turn pages using intuitive 1:1 touchpad or touchscreen gestures. Easily access the table of contents or use the "find in book" feature for quick navigation. A reading progress slider and navigation history help you keep track of your place.

  • Bookmarking & Annotations: Foliate lets you add bookmarks and annotations directly within the eBook. These are stored as plain JSON files, making them easy to export, sync with cloud services, or use with other tools.

  • Helpful Tools:

    • Dictionary Lookup: Look up unfamiliar words in Wiktionary and Wikipedia.
    • Translation: Translate passages using Google Translate.
    • Text-to-Speech: Have the text read aloud using Speech Dispatcher.
  • Advanced Rendering Capabilities: Foliate supports right-to-left text (for languages like Arabic or Hebrew), vertical writing, and fixed layout books (where page elements are precisely positioned). It also includes features like auto-hyphenation, popup footnotes, and media overlays for a richer reading experience.

  • Open Source & Community Driven: Foliate is free software released under the GNU General Public License, meaning you can freely redistribute and modify it. The project encourages community involvement through FAQs, issue reporting, and discussions.

  • Installation: Foliate is available as pre-built packages for popular Linux distributions like Arch Linux, Debian, Fedora, and openSUSE. Alternatively, you can clone the source code from GitHub using Git.


  • Functionality: Users express both positive and negative experiences with Foliate's functionality. While some praise its intuitive design, feature set, and clean interface, others report encountering issues such as blank screens when opening certain epub files, suggesting potential compatibility problems.

  • Platform Compatibility: There is a strong desire among users for Foliate to be available on platforms beyond Linux, specifically Windows and Android. Users suggest alternatives like Alexandria (Windows/MacOS) and KOReader (Android), acknowledging limitations in KOReader's PDF handling.

  • Image Format Support: The use of the WebP image format elicits mixed reactions. Some users appreciate its efficiency, while others express concern about potential inconvenience for those lacking native support. Suggestions include associating WebP with web browsers like Firefox or Chromium for viewing, or using the "mpv" movie player as an alternative viewer.

  • Desired Features: Users request features such as dark mode and native-looking integration with KDE Plasma to enhance Foliate's usability and aesthetics.

  • Alternatives and Cross-Platform Compatibility: Users propose a variety of alternatives to Foliate, including ffplay, Aarianna (for KDE), Calibre, Fbreader, and KoReader. For Android ebook readers, Cool Reader GL, Librera FD, ReadEra, and Mupdf are suggested.

  • Technical Aspects: The use of JavaScript in Foliate's development sparks debate, with some users expressing a preference for non-JavaScript applications. There are also inquiries about Foliate's hyphenation capabilities and the possibility of using custom hyphenation lists bundled with ebooks.

23. Bangladesh imposes curfew after dozens killed in anti-government protests (www.washingtonpost.com | Archive)
351 points by perihelions | 2024-07-19 15:22:02 | 138 comments

Dehyped title: Bangladesh Imposes Curfew After Deadly Protests Over Job Reservation Policy


  • The Trigger: The protests erupted due to a new government policy reserving 30% of government jobs for descendants of Bangladesh's freedom fighters. This policy, reinstated by a court ruling, has been met with fierce opposition from students who argue it unfairly benefits families close to the ruling Awami League party at a time when economic hardship is widespread.

  • Escalating Violence: The protests have turned violent, with clashes between students and police resulting in dozens of deaths and hundreds of injuries. Protesters attacked state television headquarters and set fire to police booths. The government responded by imposing a nationwide curfew and deploying the military to enforce it.

  • Information Blackout: To curb what they call "disinformation," authorities have cut off mobile internet services across the country, effectively plunging Bangladesh into a near-total internet shutdown. This has made it difficult to verify casualty figures and get accurate information about the situation on the ground.

  • Political Context: Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, who has been in power for over two decades, has defended the quota policy, arguing that families of freedom fighters deserve compensation. However, her critics accuse her of using the policy to consolidate power and benefit her own party. The protests represent a significant challenge to Hasina's rule, which has faced criticism for becoming increasingly authoritarian.

  • Economic Concerns: Bangladesh is grappling with high inflation (over 9%) and stagnant economic growth. Government jobs are highly sought after, especially given the challenging economic climate. The quota policy further restricts access to these coveted positions for many young people.

  • Legal Challenge: The Supreme Court has temporarily suspended the quota policy and will rule on its legality on August 7th. This decision could have a major impact on the future of the protests and the political landscape in Bangladesh.


  • Violence Against Civilians: Users express concern about violence against civilians during protests, arguing that targeting individuals is unjustified. Some believe the focus should be on state institutions and leaders responsible for perceived injustices.

  • Economic Concerns: Users highlight potential economic consequences of prolonged protests, including job losses and business disruptions. They suggest entrepreneurship and private enterprise as alternative paths to prosperity.

  • Government Corruption and Nepotism: Users point to systemic corruption and nepotism within government institutions as underlying causes for unrest. They argue that quotas for government jobs are often exploited by powerful individuals to maintain control.

  • Police Brutality and Suppression of Protests: Users condemn the use of violence by police and pro-government groups against peaceful protesters, citing instances of excessive force and intimidation tactics used to quell dissent.

  • Leadership and Rhetoric: Users criticize the Prime Minister's language and demeanor, characterizing it as offensive and dismissive of public concerns. They argue that the leader's rhetoric has exacerbated tensions and contributed to violence escalation.

  • The Ethics of Colonial Legacy: Users debate the complexities of weakening a former vassal state to prevent revenge for centuries of colonial rule. Some argue such actions are necessary to ensure stability, while others question the morality of perpetuating power imbalances.

  • Partition and its Consequences: Users discuss the historical context of Partition and its impact on the region. They analyze Lord Mountbatten's role in the process and consider alternative approaches that could have been taken.

  • Internet Shutdowns and Censorship: Users express concern over Bangladesh's internet shutdown during student protests, highlighting the potential for such actions to stifle dissent and limit access to information. They question the motivations behind the shutdown and its implications for freedom of speech.

  • Centralization of the Internet: Users explore vulnerabilities of a centralized internet infrastructure, noting that disruptions by key players could have widespread consequences. They debate the extent to which the internet is already centralized and consider potential solutions to mitigate these risks.

24. Parametric Matrix Models (arxiv.org | Archive)
13 points by evanb | 2024-07-16 13:48:34 | 0 comments

Dehyped title: Parametric Matrix Models: A Novel Class of Machine Learning Algorithms Based on Quantum Physics Principles for Universal Function Approximation.


  • Introduction of Parametric Matrix Models: The paper introduces a novel class of machine learning algorithms called parametric matrix models. Unlike traditional neural network models that mimic biological neurons, these models leverage matrix equations to emulate the physics of quantum systems.

  • Learning Governing Equations: Parametric matrix models aim to learn the underlying mathematical relationships (equations) that govern the desired output. These equations can involve algebraic, differential, or integral relations.

  • Universality and Applicability: The authors prove that parametric matrix models are universal function approximators, meaning they can theoretically approximate any continuous function. This makes them applicable to a wide range of machine learning tasks beyond their initial scientific computing focus.

  • Advantages of Parametric Matrix Models:

    • Efficiency: They can be efficiently trained from empirical data.
    • Interpretability: The learned matrix equations provide insights into the underlying relationships within the data, making the model more interpretable than black-box models.
    • Input Feature Extrapolation: Parametric matrix models demonstrate the ability to extrapolate and make predictions for input features outside the training range.
  • Applications and Performance: The paper showcases the performance of parametric matrix models on a variety of machine learning challenges, highlighting their accuracy and effectiveness across different problem domains.

  • Theoretical Foundation: The authors delve into the theoretical underpinnings of parametric matrix models, establishing their mathematical validity and ability to approximate complex functions.

Comments: Unable to generate summary

25. Graunt and Statistics (www.delanceyplace.com | Archive)
21 points by Hooke | 2024-07-17 19:09:30 | 4 comments

Dehyped title: John Graunt pioneered statistical inference by drawing broad conclusions about London's population from a sample of birth and death records.


  • Early Data Collection: Before John Graunt, information about births and deaths was scattered. Parish churches kept records, London tracked weekly tallies, and Holland used life annuities to gather mortality data.

  • Graunt's Innovation: While not intentionally pioneering sampling theory, Graunt analyzed complete bills of mortality in a systematic way that laid the groundwork for statistics as we know it. He drew broad conclusions from available data, essentially inferring global trends from a sample.

  • The Rise of Population Statistics: As England transitioned from an agricultural to a more complex society with trade and overseas ventures, headcounts became crucial for estimating military manpower and tax revenue potential.

  • A Time of Change: The Restoration of Charles II brought intellectual freedom after Puritan rule. New wealth flowed in from colonies, and Isaac Newton's scientific breakthroughs encouraged fresh thinking. This atmosphere fostered Graunt's groundbreaking work.

  • Statistical Inference: Graunt's analysis, though based on a fraction of all births and deaths, allowed him to make insightful observations about population trends. His approach, known as statistical inference, is the foundation for estimating global values from samples and understanding the potential error between estimates and true values.

  • Transformative Impact: Graunt's work transformed simple data collection into a powerful tool for interpreting the world. His methods paved the way for modern statistics and its applications in diverse fields like sociology, medicine, political science, and history.


  • Unfamiliar Word Usage: Users express surprise at encountering the word "pyx" outside its traditional religious context.

  • Alternative Meanings: Users offer alternative definitions for "pyx," including its use as a coin chest.

  • Literary Reference: Users recall encountering "pyx" as a solution to a puzzle in H.E. Dudeney's book "The Canterbury Puzzles." A specific reference (problem 51 on page 202) and a link to the relevant Google Books page are provided.

26. Aviator (YC S21) Is hiring engineers to build the DevEx platform (www.ycombinator.com | Archive)
1 points by ankitdce | 2024-07-19 17:00:06 | 0 comments

Dehyped title: Aviator develops engineering productivity tools for automating developer workflows, saving engineers time on tasks like code submission and testing.


  • Aviator is a startup that develops engineering productivity tools designed to automate repetitive tasks for developers.

  • Their target customers are companies like Bosch, Slack, Square, Figma, and Benchling.

  • Aviator's tools aim to save engineers up to 10 hours per week by automating code submission processes, testing procedures, and other time-consuming tasks.

  • The company is well-funded and generates significant revenue from enterprise clients.

  • Notable Silicon Valley investors like Elad Gil and Lenny Rachitsky back Aviator.

  • The founding team consists of two ex-Googlers with experience building engineering teams at fast-growing startups.

  • Aviator was founded in 2021 and currently has a team size of six people, located in San Francisco.

Comments: Unable to generate summary

27. CLI tools to build, browse, and blend your media library (github.com | Archive)
42 points by xk3 | 2024-07-19 17:31:42 | 5 comments

Dehyped title: This Python project provides over 80 command-line tools for managing and curating multimedia libraries using SQLite databases and FFmpeg.


  • Core Functionality: This project provides over 80 command-line tools designed to help you manage and interact with your media library. Think of it as a powerful toolkit for building, browsing, and blending your digital archive.

  • Database Focus: A key aspect is the use of SQLite databases for storing information about your media. This allows for efficient searching, organization, and analysis of your collection.

  • Media Processing: The tools include features for processing media files:

    • ffmpeg Integration: Leverage ffmpeg's capabilities to check video/audio files for corruption, shrink videos/audio to AV1/Opus format (.mkv, .mka), and resize images while converting them to the AV1 image format (.avif).
  • Database Management: Tools are provided for:

    • Merging Databases: Combine multiple SQLITE databases into a single one.
    • Copying Play History: Transfer play history data between different sources.
    • Deduplication: Remove duplicate entries from tables and media files to keep your library clean and organized.
  • Filesystem Interaction: Tools for interacting with your filesystem:

    • Disk Usage Analysis: Get a clear picture of how much space your media is consuming on different disks.
    • Database Searching: Quickly find specific media within your SQLite database.
    • Folder Management: Identify large folders, find similar folders based on name, size, and file count, and clean up file paths for better organization.
  • Data Analysis and Exploration: Tools for working with tabular data:

    • Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA): Gain insights from table-like files using statistical analysis and visualization techniques.
    • Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA): Make informed decisions about your media library based on multiple factors.
    • Markdown Table Generation: Easily create markdown tables from structured data for documentation or sharing purposes.
  • Playback and Control: Tools for interacting with your media:

    • Watch/Listen: Stream your media directly from the command line.
    • Playback Control: Manage playback with commands like "next," "seek," "stop," and "pause."
    • History Management: Track what you've watched or listened to, add entries manually, and view statistics about your media consumption.
  • Advanced Features:

    • LLM Integration: Run Large Language Models (LLMs) across multiple files for tasks like text analysis and summarization.
    • Incremental Diffing: Efficiently compare large table-like files by processing them in chunks.
    • Web Scraping and Data Collection: Tools for scraping websites and collecting data, such as links and media information.
  • Community and Support: The project is open-source and actively maintained, with contributions from multiple developers.


  • Functionality: Users express interest in the tool's capabilities beyond simple downloading, highlighting its potential for scraping websites, analyzing folder structures, and sorting media content.

  • Use Cases: Specific examples are provided, such as using the tool to scrape art from online repositories and view folder sizes at different depths. Another example involves watching multiple videos simultaneously by leveraging commands for looping playback, audio processing, and file movement.

  • Documentation and Examples: Users inquire about additional usage examples and recipes. The developer confirms that detailed examples are available through command-line help (-h) and commits to adding more practical use cases to the existing documentation.

28. We created a fake delivery company to get a job (blog.kashevko.com | Archive)
85 points by 1ikigai | 2024-07-16 16:21:13 | 37 comments

Dehyped title: A marketing campaign uses AI-generated future visions to engage potential clients.


  • The Premise: The story revolves around a marketing campaign called "Future Delivers" designed to generate buzz and potentially investment for an unnamed company.

  • The Execution: The campaign involves sending elaborate, personalized boxes to high-profile individuals and companies. Each box contains:

    • A small antique box with smoke emanating from it.
    • Inside the antique box is a smaller box containing AI-generated images depicting potential future events for the recipient.
    • A tablet pre-loaded with a video message featuring a digitally recreated version of the recipient, speaking to their "present self" about their future.
  • The Hook: After watching the video, recipients are prompted to touch a virtual kitten on the screen, triggering another personalized video message.

  • Engagement and Follow-Up: The campaign encourages recipients to respond via text, audio, or video. If someone doesn't open the box promptly, the team sends a follow-up email.

  • The Soundtrack: After responding, recipients are redirected to a custom credits page featuring original music tracks tailored to their individual tastes.

  • Data and Results: The story presents data on recipient responses, highlighting both successes (like EY and Saatchi & Saatchi) and challenges (a cease and desist letter from Conde Nast).

  • Correlation vs. Causation: The narrator humorously attempts to draw a connection between the campaign's launch dates and an increase in Google searches for "private investigator services," but acknowledges the fallacy of assuming causation.

  • Looking Ahead: The story concludes with a sense of uncertainty about the future direction of Future Delivers, comparing their journey to being chauffeured in a taxi that takes unexpected turns.


  • Appreciation for Creativity: Users expressed admiration for the creativity and ingenuity displayed in the project, acknowledging the effort and thought put into it.

  • Understanding of Security Concerns: Some users acknowledged that the cease and desist letter might have been a standard security procedure, potentially driven by past experiences with harassment or stalking.

  • Intrigue and Entertainment Value: Users found the concept intriguing and entertaining, appreciating the novelty and unexpected nature of the project.

  • Technical Issues: One user reported encountering technical difficulties while accessing the website on their Android device using the Brave browser.

  • Ethical Considerations: A few users raised concerns about the ethical implications of sending unsolicited packages to company mailrooms, questioning the appropriateness of such actions.

29. Elephants use namelike calls (www.theatlantic.com | Archive)
108 points by peutetre | 2024-07-18 23:53:36 | 83 comments

Dehyped title: Elephant vocalizations exhibit learned individual-specific call structures, suggesting name-like identification.


  • The Power of Names: The article starts by highlighting how crucial names are for human communication and social interaction. Names allow us to identify individuals specifically, which becomes essential in larger groups.

  • Beyond Humans: For a long time, scientists believed that naming was a uniquely human trait. However, research over the past decade has challenged this view.

  • Name-Like Calls in Animals: Studies have shown that bottlenose dolphins, parrots, and possibly whales and bats use calls that function like names, identifying individuals within their species.

  • Elephants Join the List: A recent study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution provides compelling evidence that elephants also use name-like calls. This finding further blurs the line between human and animal communication.

  • Learning is Key: The article emphasizes that "names" in the animal kingdom aren't innate sounds. Animals capable of using name-like identifiers must possess "vocal-production learning," meaning they can learn and modify new sounds.


  • Paywall Concerns: Users express frustration with the prevalence of paywalls on articles submitted to Hacker News, arguing that it hinders access to content and wastes time. Some suggest implementing a system to indicate articles behind paywalls, while others believe bypassing paywalls is straightforward using browser extensions.

  • Value of Content: Despite paywall concerns, users acknowledge the value of sharing interesting articles even if they are behind paywalls. They argue that the ability to access these articles through workarounds allows for exposure to content that might otherwise be missed.

  • HN Policy: Users reference Hacker News' policy on paywalls, which permits submissions from sites with paywalls as long as there are workarounds available. The community is encouraged to discuss methods for accessing content but discouraged from complaining about paywalls themselves.

30. NASA's Curiosity rover discovers a surprise in a Martian rock (www.jpl.nasa.gov | Archive)
161 points by Ozarkian | 2024-07-19 13:47:48 | 89 comments

Dehyped title: NASA's Curiosity Rover Analyzes Rock Sample in Mars' Gediz Vallis Channel


  • NASA's Curiosity rover recently drilled its 41st hole on Mars in an area called Gediz Vallis Channel.

  • This channel is thought to be an ancient waterway, and Curiosity is exploring it to learn more about Mars' watery past.

  • After drilling, Curiosity used its robotic arm to deliver the powdered rock sample into instruments inside its body for analysis.

  • Scientists will use this data to determine the composition of the rock and gain insights into the geological history of the region.

  • Curiosity has since moved on from Mammoth Lakes, continuing its exploration of Gediz Vallis Channel in search of further discoveries.


  • Speculation on Formation: Users speculate about the formation of the sulfur deposit, suggesting possibilities like chemosynthesis, volcanic activity, and even a connection to Jupiter's moon Io. Some express curiosity about whether this discovery sheds light on the feasibility of sulfur-based lifeforms.

  • Impact on Search for Life: Users discuss the potential implications of the sulfur deposit for finding evidence of past or present life on Mars. Some wonder if its presence indicates a lack of biological activity that might have otherwise broken down and altered the surface. Others suggest it could point towards chemosynthetic life, which often produces sulfur as a byproduct.

  • Comparison to Video Games: Users draw humorous comparisons between the Martian landscape and video games like "No Man's Sky," noting the similarity in appearance of the sulfur veins.

  • Desire for Further Information: Users express a desire for more information about the discovery, such as how the sulfur deposit formed and whether it has any connection to the presence (or absence) of water on Mars. Some also wonder about the implications for future exploration and the search for life beyond Earth.

  • Scientific Humility: One user critiques the language used in the press release, advocating for more humility and uncertainty from scientists when presenting their findings. They suggest phrases like "We didn't expect it to be there" instead of "It shouldn't be there."