1. CentOS Linux 7 will reach EOL on Sunday (www.redhat.com | Archive)
61 points by fh973 | 2024-06-24 08:45:20 | 16 comments

Dehyped title: CentOS Linux 7 end-of-life: Red Hat offers migration path to RHEL, with tools to ease transition and maintain business continuity.


CentOS Linux is reaching end-of-life, so users are being encouraged to migrate to Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). RHEL for Third Party Linux Migration is a new offering to help CentOS users transition to RHEL 7 with minimal disruption. Convert2RHEL is a no-cost tool that simplifies the migration process by automatically converting CentOS to RHEL. Red Hat also offers a Developer Subscription for Teams to allow existing customers to deploy RHEL in their development environments at no extra cost. For large migrations, Red Hat Consulting is available to help accelerate and enable the transition to RHEL.


  • Users discuss alternatives to CentOS Linux 7 after its end-of-life announcement, with some highlighting the smooth transition to RedHat 8 and 9 for most teams, while others suggest alternatives like SUSE, Rocky Linux, AlmaLinux, Debian, Ubuntu, and Oracle Linux. Some users share their experiences with these alternatives, with one user noting the use of LEAPP to move to CS9. The discussion also highlights the challenges faced by companies with substantial CentOS 7 deployments and those with FedRAMP or similar clientele.

2. Apple found in breach of EU competition rules (www.theguardian.com | Archive)
137 points by malermeister | 2024-06-24 09:10:56 | 85 comments

Dehyped title: Apple found to not fully comply with EU's Digital Markets Act


The European Commission has found Apple in breach of EU competition rules under the new Digital Markets Act (DMA). The Commission believes Apple's App Store policies, including fees charged to developers, do not comply with the DMA's requirement to allow developers to freely steer consumers to alternative purchasing options. Apple has 12 months to comply before facing potential fines of up to 10% of global revenue. This is the third non-compliance investigation the Commission has opened against Apple under the DMA. Apple says it has made changes to comply with the DMA and believes its new business terms will result in the same or lower fees for over 99% of developers.


  • Users discuss the impact of the EU's Data Market Act (DMA) on Apple devices and the choice it offers between Apple and Android ecosystems. Some users prefer Apple's safe and user-friendly ecosystem, while others argue that the DMA should offer a default choice without making it mandatory. The discussion also highlights the security benefits of iOS over desktop operating systems and the potential education problem for users choosing options that hinder their privacy.
  • Users express concerns about the impact of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the DMA on their device usage, with some mentioning annoying banners and the potential for unintended consequences.
  • There is a debate about the benefits of Apple's ecosystem, with some users valuing its safety and user-friendliness, while others argue that it limits choice and should not be mandatory.
  • Users discuss the potential designation of Apple as a Criminal Enterprise™ due to its business practices.
  • The discussion highlights the impact of the DMA on users' choices, with some expressing concerns about the implications for their device usage and privacy.

3. The tiny chip that powers Montreal subway tickets (www.righto.com | Archive)
691 points by todsacerdoti | 2024-06-23 17:22:52 | 356 comments

Dehyped title: The Montreal subway uses inexpensive disposable NFC tickets powered by tiny 180nm MIFARE Ultralight chips without batteries.


The document describes the inner workings of the NFC chip used in Montreal subway tickets. The chip is extremely small, around the size of a grain of salt, and lacks advanced security features. It uses load modulation to communicate with the subway turnstile reader without a battery. The chip is implemented using an old 180nm semiconductor process, but this keeps manufacturing costs low. The document also details the process the author used to examine and dissect the chip down to the bare silicon.


  • Users discuss the convenience and cost of using NFC chips for public transportation payments, with some systems eliminating cash altogether.
  • Some users can still purchase one-time use cards with cash, but others note that cash is being phased out in favor of reusable stored-value cards.
  • The discussion highlights the benefits of NFC technology, including convenience and speed of payment, but also raises concerns about the cost and potential revenue for vendors.
  • Users share their experiences with different transportation systems, with some noting the availability of plastic stored-value cards and others discussing the use of disposable tickets.
  • There is a discussion about the potential for using NFC chips in devices for configuration and data storage, but there are concerns about the security and feasibility of certain chip types for this application.

4. Microfeatures I Love in Blogs and Personal Websites (danilafe.com | Archive)
9 points by fabianholzer | 2024-06-24 10:25:11 | 4 comments

Dehyped title: Blogs and personal websites can be enhanced with various microfeatures to improve the reading experience.


The author discusses various "microfeatures" they enjoy on blogs and personal websites. These include sidenotes, tables of contents, page progress bars, clickable headings for linking, support for content series, dialogues, annotated code blocks, link previews on hover, and RSS integration. The author provides examples of websites that implement these features well. The author notes that these features are not essential but can enhance the user experience. Overall, the author advocates for incorporating small, thoughtful features that improve the quality of life for readers.


  • Users appreciate the ability to print blog posts and create PDFs for later reading, outdoor reading, or sharing.
  • The progress meter is deemed unnecessary by some users, as the scrollbar can serve the same purpose. However, others find it useful, especially when combined with an estimated reading time, to engage with the content more effectively.
  • Users like the idea of having plain text versions of blog posts, making it easy to copy and paste content into emails or Reddit submissions.
  • View source links at the bottom of each page are appreciated, as they allow users to see the underlying code and track changes over time.
  • Clientside full-text search, CSV export, keyboard navigation, and the ability to download entire websites for offline reading are all valuable features that enhance the user experience.
  • Users appreciate the attention to detail in designing printable versions of blog posts, ensuring that content looks decent when printed.

5. US prosecutors recommend Justice Department criminally charge Boeing (www.voanews.com | Archive)
237 points by elsewhen | 2024-06-24 06:53:04 | 161 comments

Dehyped title: US prosecutors recommend criminal charges against Boeing over 737 MAX settlement violations.


U.S. prosecutors are recommending that the Justice Department criminally charge Boeing for violating a 2021 settlement related to the 737 MAX crashes. The Justice Department must decide by July 7 whether to prosecute Boeing. Under the 2021 deal, Boeing agreed to pay $2.5 billion to settle the investigation, but prosecutors now believe the company has breached the agreement. Boeing disputes the Justice Department's determination that it violated the settlement. If charges are brought, it would deepen the crisis at Boeing, which has faced intense scrutiny since the crashes.


  • Users discuss the differing approaches to corporate accountability in the US and China, with some expressing a preference for the Chinese model of strict punishment for corporate malfeasance.

  • There is criticism of the US regulatory system, suggesting that American regulators are too easily influenced by powerful corporations, putting business interests before safety.

  • Some users argue that the US should take a tougher approach to corporate wrongdoing, even if it means breaking up large companies or imprisoning executives.

  • Others highlight cases of Chinese citizens being punished for displeaseing the government or party, questioning the transparency and fairness of the Chinese system.

  • A few users compare the Boeing case to more serious instances of corporate crime in China, such as mass poisoning or making bad drugs, arguing that the consequences should be similar.

  • One user mentions the potential consequences for Chinese CEOs who "fuck around," resulting in severe punishment.

6. DIY Smart Doorbell for just $2, no soldering required (frenck.dev | Archive)
14 points by saberhagen | 2024-06-24 10:24:15 | 2 comments

Dehyped title: DIY smart home project using $2 ESP-01S chip and relay module to convert wired doorbell into WiFi-enabled smart device.


This article explains how to convert a wired or battery-powered doorbell into a smart, WiFi-enabled doorbell for around $2 without any soldering. It describes the components needed, the modification required to the ESP-01S chip, the process of flashing the firmware, and wiring the setup. The article then covers integrating the smart doorbell with Home Assistant and provides examples of useful automations like sending notifications, disabling the chime at night, and streaming the front door camera. Finally, the author notes that this project is really about demonstrating how easy and inexpensive DIY smart home solutions can be using tools like ESPHome and Home Assistant.


  • Users highlight the fun and cool nature of the post, but also point out that the mobile view is unbearable and suggest improvements to styling.

7. Cosmopolitan v3.5.0 (github.com | Archive)
154 points by sgammon | 2024-06-24 06:50:00 | 34 comments

Dehyped title: Cosmopolitan v3.5.0 released with improvements to memory management, C++ STL, and other features.


Cosmopolitan Libc is a C library that aims to make C a "build-once run-anywhere" language, like Java, but without needing an interpreter or virtual machine. It reconfigures GCC and Clang to output a POSIX-approved polyglot format that runs natively on multiple operating systems.

The latest release, v3.5.0, includes several improvements, such as a higher quality memory map implementation, updates to the Lua library, and support for the -x LANG flag in cosmocc.

Significant progress has been made in reinventing the C++ STL, with the introduction of data structures like ctl::set, ctl::map, and ctl::unique_ptr, as well as optimizations to ctl::string.

Various bug fixes and improvements have been made to the ctl library, including addressing memory issues, decoupling swap from std, and making big_string a POD type.

The document also mentions improvements to the project's GitHub development process, such as adding a labeler action and an issue template.


  • Users discuss a tool that can be used to decode uuencoded files, similar to uudecode.com, a DOS binary that uses 7-bit characters.
  • A C89 compiler that produces executables that are also valid ASCII text files is mentioned, with a link to the paper for SIGBOVIK 2017.

8. Fire at South Korea lithium battery plant kills at least 16 people (www.nbcnews.com | Archive)
33 points by rntn | 2024-06-24 10:34:11 | 0 comments

Dehyped title: Fire at lithium battery plant in South Korea kills at least 16 people


A fire broke out at a lithium battery factory in Hwaseong, South Korea, killing at least 16 people and leaving 5 others missing. The fire started after a series of battery cell explosions in a warehouse containing around 35,000 battery units. Rescue efforts are ongoing to find the missing individuals. The factory is operated by battery manufacturer Aricell, which was established in 2020 and produces lithium primary batteries. The company is majority-owned by S-Connect, whose stock price fell 22.5% following the incident.

Comments: Unable to generate summary

9. You can now write React in Lua (github.com | Archive)
77 points by bundie | 2024-06-20 14:31:22 | 35 comments

Dehyped title: React Lua: A Lua translation of ReactJS 17.x, with plans to port core functionality and testing capabilities.


React Lua is a comprehensive translation of the ReactJS framework from JavaScript into the Lua programming language, with a focus on performance and correctness. It aims to be the go-to solution for using React in the Roblox and broader Lua community. The project is a fork of Roblox's internal React-Lua repository, which was previously not accessible to the public. The summary outlines the status of various React packages that have been ported or are planned to be ported, as well as some key deviations from the original Roact library to improve compatibility. The document also provides contribution guidelines for aligning the project with the upstream React codebase.


  • Users discuss alternatives to React, with some suggesting Vue, Svelte, Solid, Qwik, Alpine, and Lit as superior options.
  • There is a general consensus that React is overly complex and unnecessary for most projects, with some users comparing it to a fever dream or a pile of cow crap.
  • Users also highlight the hidden complexity behind reasonable interfaces in frameworks like React, RDBMS, and async coroutine modules in language runtimes.
  • Some users joke about the ubiquity of React, with one user joking about a React Native Web Browser App and another mentioning ReactOS, which has nothing to do with the ReactJS library.
  • Users express a preference for simpler approaches like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, with one user suggesting that funny, animating widgets are of little commercial value.

10. I am using AI to drop hats outside my window onto New Yorkers (dropofahat.zone | Archive)
1102 points by jimhi | 2024-06-23 13:49:30 | 325 comments

Dehyped title: Raspberry Pi used to automate dropping hats from window using object detection AI and stepper motor.


The author describes the process of setting up a system to drop hats out of a window onto passersby. They had trouble figuring out how to open their window, but eventually found the right key. They decided to drop propeller hats as a way to represent the future. The author used a Raspberry Pi, stepper motor, and webcam to automate the hat dropping process. They trained an object detection AI model to identify when someone was standing in the right spot under the window, and then had the system trigger the hat drop. The author's vision is to create a world where people can have items dropped on them from windows on demand, which they call "Window Shopping."


  • Users praise the project's creativity and humor, with some requesting video evidence of its success.
  • Some commenters express confusion about the lack of video demonstration, assuming it to be a conceptual art project or hoax.
  • Others discuss the potential for similar projects, such as delivering lunch boxes or grand pianos, and request more information on the AI head detection technology.
  • There are also jokes about domestic terrorism and anvils, with users expressing their interest in a world where sandwich shopping is done by dropping items on people's heads.
  • Users also discuss the potential for this technology to be implemented in their daily lives, such as buying hats or grand pianos.

11. Up to 78M batteries will be discarded daily by 2025, researchers warn (cordis.europa.eu | Archive)
28 points by teleforce | 2024-06-24 09:57:39 | 26 comments

Dehyped title: Researchers warn of growing e-waste from IoT device batteries, call for improved battery lifespan and energy harvesting to reduce environmental impact.


The EnABLES EU-funded project warns that up to 78 million batteries powering IoT devices will be discarded daily by 2025 if their lifespan is not improved. The project recommends actions to make IoT device batteries last longer, such as harvesting ambient energy like light, heat, and vibration, and reducing device energy consumption. Researchers state that currently, IoT device batteries typically last 2 years while the devices operate for over 10 years, leading to frequent battery replacements with economic and environmental consequences. To achieve sustainable IoT, the project emphasizes the need for collaborative efforts across disciplines to design products with battery life in mind from the start. The EnABLES project aims to maintain Europe's leadership in this area by ensuring continued access to scientific expertise, facilities, and technology platforms.


  • Users discuss the challenges of disposing of electric vehicle batteries, with some expressing concerns about the safety and environmental impact of recycling processes. Some highlight the potential value of EV batteries as a source of raw materials for recycling, while others point out the economic incentives for scrap yards and re-cyclers to process these valuable batteries. There are also mentions of second-life usage for decommissioned batteries in grid storage or new vehicle packs, as well as concerns about the disposal of one-use vape devices and other disposable items.
  • Users highlight the potential benefits of recycling EV batteries, with some expressing optimism about the ability to recycle up to 95% of the battery materials. However, there are also concerns about the safety and complexity of the recycling process, with some users noting that proper equipment and processes are necessary.
  • Users discuss the environmental impact of electric vehicles, with some expressing concerns about the disposal of batteries and the potential for pollution. There are also discussions about the economic incentives for recycling EV batteries and the potential value of these batteries as a source of raw materials.

12. Commission opens additional DMA investigation against Apple (ec.europa.eu | Archive)
56 points by jeroenhd | 2024-06-24 08:56:08 | 31 comments

Dehyped title: Unable to generate summary


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  • Users discuss the potential impact of the EU's investigation into Apple's App Store practices, with some expressing support for Spotify's position.

  • There is a debate about whether Apple is a monopoly or a duopoly with Google, with most users arguing that it is not a duopoly due to its smaller market share compared to Google.

  • Users also discuss the potential regulatory action against Spotify, with suggestions that the company should be forced to implement certain APIs and address GDPR concerns.

  • Some users highlight the dominance of Spotify in the music streaming market, questioning whether Apple or the record labels hold more influence over the company.

  • There is a discussion about the differences between the App Store and Spotify as content distribution platforms, with some users arguing that the consumption of content happens inside Spotify, setting it apart from the App Store.

  • Users express concerns about Apple's control over the distribution of content and devices, with some mentioning issues with GDPR fines for Spotify.

  • The conversation highlights the complex relationship between tech giants, content providers, and regulatory bodies, with users discussing the potential impact of regulatory action on the industry.

13. LINQPad – The .NET Programmer's Playground (www.linqpad.net | Archive)
196 points by wofo | 2024-06-23 20:02:33 | 85 comments

Dehyped title: LINQPad is a versatile .NET development tool that enables interactive coding, database querying, and rapid prototyping.


LINQPad is a powerful tool for .NET developers that goes beyond just LINQ queries. It allows you to interactively run C#/F#/VB code, reference your own assemblies and NuGet packages, and prototype ideas before integrating them into Visual Studio. LINQPad provides rich output formatting, a debugger, and instant feedback, making it great for rapid coding and learning C#. It has advanced features like database querying, caching, benchmarking, and generating Excel files. LINQPad comes with a tutorial and reference of interactive sample queries covering its many capabilities. Overall, it is described as a versatile ".NET Swiss Army Knife" for developers.


  • Users discuss their experiences with Microsoft's programming languages and tools, with a focus on C# and .NET.

  • There is a mixed sentiment towards Microsoft's commitment to C# and .NET, with some users feeling that the company is not fully invested in its development, while others disagree.

  • The discussion highlights the benefits of using LINQPad, a Windows-only tool for .NET development, with some users praising its usefulness and convenience, while others express frustration with its limitations and lack of reliability.

  • Users also discuss the challenges of using C# and .NET, including issues with the Windows API wrapper and the lack of support for Windows clients in the future.

  • There is a discussion about the potential replacement of C# with TypeScript, with users speculating on the possible benefits and drawbacks of such a change.

  • Overall, the conversation reflects a range of perspectives and experiences among users, with a mix of positive and negative sentiments towards Microsoft's programming tools and their development practices.

14. Benjamin Thorpe: The Man Who Translated Almost All Old English Texts (thijsporck.com | Archive)
72 points by stareatgoats | 2024-06-22 12:05:11 | 21 comments

Dehyped title: Benjamin Thorpe, a prolific translator of Old English texts in the 19th century, faced some criticism over errors in his later Beowulf edition.


Benjamin Thorpe (1782-1870) was one of the first scholars to publish extensive editions and translations of Old English texts, though little is known about his background. He worked as a humble and diligent translator, producing works on a wide range of Old English literature including poems, law texts, psalms, chronicles, and homilies. While Thorpe's editions and translations were generally well-regarded, his reputation was nearly ruined by errors that appeared in posthumous reprints of his Beowulf edition, which were not present in his original 1855 publication. Despite these issues, Thorpe is considered a pioneering figure in the development of Anglo-Saxon studies and left a significant scholarly legacy through his voluminous work on Old English texts.


  • Users discuss the evolution of English and its future, with some controversial opinions.
  • There is agreement that English is evolving slowly and may reach a 'final form' in the future, with minor changes.
  • The impact of technology and the dominance of English on other languages is noted, with concerns about smaller languages dying out.
  • Users also discuss the challenges of spelling and pronunciation in English, with suggestions that the language needs updating.
  • The discussion includes the role of non-native speakers in shaping English and the advantages of a shared, simplified version of English in international settings.
  • There is recognition of the complexity of linguistic evolution and the impact of factors such as technology and globalisation.
  • Users also highlight the importance of translation and its impact on the spread and evolution of English.

15. An essay on the history of mathematical typography (2017) (www.practicallyefficient.com | Archive)
10 points by bookofjoe | 2024-06-20 14:47:35 | 1 comments

Dehyped title: The history of mathematical typography, from Gutenberg's movable type to Knuth's TeX, showcases the evolution of typesetting technology.


The document traces the history of mathematical typography, from Gutenberg's printing press to modern digital typesetting. It highlights the artistry and craftsmanship involved in setting mathematical equations and symbols, which was an extremely tedious process before the digital age. The development of technologies like Monotype and Linotype systems improved the efficiency of typesetting, but still struggled with complex mathematical notation. The document then discusses how Donald Knuth's creation of TeX revolutionized mathematical typography by using computer programming to emulate the aesthetics of traditional typesetting. Finally, it reflects on how the speed and ease of modern digital publishing has led to a need to slow down and focus more on the art of written expression.


  • The article discusses the history of mathematical typography and its evolution, particularly the creation of Neo-Tifinagh.
  • Users highlight the similarities between Neo-Tifinagh glyphs and mathematical symbols, suggesting that they were reused to fit older letterforms.
  • One user shares their first impression of Neo-Tifinagh, thinking it was a joke due to the similarity of glyphs with mathematical symbols.
  • Another user provides context, explaining that the reuse of existing physical type for new letterforms made sense in the late 1960s in Paris.

16. Llama.ttf: A font which is also an LLM (fuglede.github.io | Archive)
500 points by fuglede_ | 2024-06-23 12:01:45 | 124 comments

Dehyped title: Font file contains large language model and inference engine


llama.ttf is a font file that also contains a large language model and an inference engine for that model. The font shaping engine Harfbuzz can use arbitrary code to "shape" text, which could include an entire LLM inference engine. This means the llama.ttf font can be used to run the LLM and generate text in any Harfbuzz-based application, without the application vendor having to add those capabilities. The document provides instructions for downloading and using the llama.ttf font to experiment with this capability. The document also notes that this is just one example of the weird things people have done by combining fonts and LLMs.


  • Users discuss the potential of the technology, with some expressing excitement about its capabilities and others raising concerns about its ethical implications.
  • Some users suggest that the technology could be used for nefarious purposes, such as creating fonts that contain virtual machines or allowing arbitrary code to shape text.
  • Others highlight the limitations of current font-shaping libraries and express concern over the potential impact on user experience and interface design.
  • A few users provide links to relevant resources, such as GitHub repos and video demonstrations, to further explain the technology and its potential applications.
  • Overall, the discussion reflects a range of viewpoints and considerations, with users expressing both enthusiasm and caution about the technology's potential benefits and risks.

17. Polytype: A Rosetta Stone for typesetting engines (polytype.dev | Archive)
11 points by ubavic | 2024-06-22 10:04:03 | 2 comments

Dehyped title: Polytype aims to provide a chrestomathy for comparing typesetting approaches across different engines.


Polytype is a project that aims to provide a chrestomathy for typesetting, similar to what Rosetta Code does for programming languages. The goal is to compare and contrast the approaches taken by different typesetting engines in handling various typesetting situations. The emphasis is on layout and orthographic features rather than markup languages, programming languages, or content. New samples are welcome, including for single engines or demonstrating contrasts/similarities between engines. Contributions can be submitted as pull requests to the GitHub project, and the site can be built locally using Nix.


  • Users discuss the choice of engines included in Polytype, with some expressing surprise at the omission of certain engines such as plain TeX, Lout, and Markdown.

  • Users also question the inclusion of some of the engines that they are less familiar with and suggest alternative options like HTML + CSS.

  • There is a discussion about the formatting and page-specific aspects of typesetting, with specific reference to page breaks and paragraph breaks.

18. Y combinator codex (2021) (phoe.github.io | Archive)
108 points by 082349872349872 | 2024-06-23 19:06:12 | 34 comments

Dehyped title: The Y Combinator Codex is a calligraphy piece created in Kraków, Poland in January 2021, available for purchase and donation.


The Y Combinator Codex is a calligraphy piece created by the author in January 2021 in Kraków, Poland. The piece is large, measuring 420mm x 2400mm, and was created using various calligraphy tools and materials. The piece was inspired by the Y Combinator Codex by emacsomancer. The condition of the original piece is described as very good, with some minor wrinkles and a small tear. Printed copies of the work will be available for purchase, and the original piece will be up for auction, with all proceeds being donated to Lisp-related organizations.


  • Users appreciate the calligraphy and craftsmanship that went into creating the Y Combinator Codex, with some expressing interest in purchasing prints or originals.
  • The creator of the codex mentions that it was inspired by emacsomancer's machine-typeset version and that it took around two weeks to create.
  • There is a discussion about the definition of a codex, with one user pointing out that it should be considered a book, not just a scroll.
  • Users also discuss the potential for selling prints or originals on Etsy, but the creator expresses a lack of interest in turning this into a part-time job due to the risk of burnout.
  • The code is described as "amazing" and "beautiful," with one user expressing appreciation for the yin-yang of eval/apply floating in a sea of King James 1611.

19. The End-of-Line Story (2004) (www.rfc-editor.org | Archive)
9 points by gabrielsroka | 2024-06-21 22:25:36 | 5 comments

Dehyped title: The end-of-line convention of CR LF was adopted for network communication to accommodate diverse operating systems in the early days of the ARPAnet.


The ASCII standard defines two independent characters, Carriage Return (CR) and Line Feed (LF), for indicating the end of a line. Early operating systems adopted different conventions using these characters, which caused issues for early ARPANET communication. Researchers agreed that the two-character sequence CR LF should be used for end-of-line in network text transmission. This convention was adopted into core internet protocols like Telnet, FTP, and SMTP. While systems generally handle EOL transparently today, misconfigurations can still lead to issues like extra control characters. Binary file transfers preserve the source system's EOL convention, which is assumed to match the destination.


  • Users discuss the challenges of dealing with text data in Linux, particularly when it comes to deleting \r and using sed for easier processing.
  • One user highlights the issues with ASCII art on Hacker News, noting its effectiveness in handling weird translation issues, despite being slow.
  • There is speculation about the origin of the decision to use a different line ending format, with one user suggesting it might be related to MS-DOS.

20. Arm64EC – Run x86_64 and Arm code in the same process (learn.microsoft.com | Archive)
113 points by heinrich5991 | 2024-06-22 09:49:15 | 33 comments

Dehyped title: Arm64EC enables incremental transition of x64 apps to native Arm performance on Windows 11 devices.


Arm64EC is a new application binary interface (ABI) for apps running on Arm devices with Windows 11. It enables developers to build new native apps or incrementally transition existing x64 apps to take advantage of the native speed and performance of Arm-powered devices. Arm64EC code is interoperable with x64 code running under emulation within the same process, allowing apps to leverage native performance for some components while still relying on x64 dependencies. Arm64EC guarantees interoperability with x64 by following the same software conventions, but is not compatible with Arm64 code. The Windows 11 on Arm operating system itself relies heavily on Arm64EC to enable running x64 applications with native performance. Developers can identify Arm64EC binaries using developer tools and Windows Task Manager.


Users discuss the new Arm64EC binary format for Windows on ARM devices, expressing mixed opinions about its usefulness and potential impact:

  • Some users see it as a way to facilitate incremental porting of large codebases to ARM, allowing usage of third-party x64 DLLs in ARM apps without recompilation. They view it as a temporary workaround while proper porting is being done.
  • Others are skeptical about the need for Arm64EC, especially considering the lack of x64 emulation support on Windows 10 on ARM devices, which never sold well. They question whether there are enough of these devices still running Windows to warrant concern.
  • A few users discuss the potential benefits of binary translation over emulation, arguing that it allows users to use non-native programs while proper porting is being done. They see Arm64EC as a complicated system with a larger attack surface.
  • There is also a discussion about the performance of x64 emulation on Windows 11 on ARM, with system DLLs compiled as Arm64EC, which may improve the performance of x64 binaries on native ARM code.
  • Users also debate the feasibility of using an emulator over a direct port, questioning the reliability and optimization of the emulator compared to their own code.

21. Detecting hallucinations in large language models using semantic entropy (www.nature.com | Archive)
152 points by Tomte | 2024-06-23 18:32:10 | 102 comments

Dehyped title: Detecting hallucinations in large language models using semantic entropy


The document discusses a method called semantic entropy for detecting hallucinations or confabulations in large language models (LLMs). Semantic entropy aims to estimate the uncertainty of an LLM over the meaning of its generated output, rather than just the uncertainty over the specific tokens used. This is done by clustering the generated outputs based on their semantic equivalence, and then computing the entropy over the probabilities of these semantic clusters. The method is shown to outperform other baselines at detecting when an LLM is producing arbitrary or incorrect outputs. The document also introduces a new dataset called FactualBio for evaluating confabulation detection in paragraph-length LLM generations.


  • Users discuss the similarities between the paper and existing tools like StoryCubes, with one user providing a link to the tool's website.
  • There is debate over the accuracy of LLMs, with one user highlighting the issue of "confabulation" and another suggesting that detecting lies is more important than teaching AI how not to lie.
  • Users discuss the challenges of teaching AI when and how to lie, with one user suggesting that AI should be taught when and how to apply semantical truth stretching.
  • The discussion highlights the potential for AI to generate random ideas without requiring a large dataset, with one user providing a link to a paper on the topic.

22. Gren 0.4: New Foundations (gren-lang.org | Archive)
22 points by Skinney | 2024-06-24 09:01:32 | 10 comments

Dehyped title: Gren 0.4 released with new FileSystem API, compiler rewrite, and other improvements to the functional programming language.


Gren is a functional programming language that has been updated with new features and improvements. The core packages have been expanded with new FileSystem modules for working with the file system. The compiler is in the process of being rewritten from Haskell to Gren, which will provide benefits like lowering the barrier to contributing. The language guide book has been updated with new content and a search feature. The community discussion platform has been switched from Zulip to Discord to better engage with users. The release includes various other smaller improvements and changes to the language.


  • Users discuss the relationship between Gren and Elm, with some expressing concern that Gren is a fork of Elm and that compatibility between the two languages may be limited.
  • There is confusion about the ability of Gren to run on NodeJS and produce different types of output, such as executables or JS code, and whether the compiler can handle this.
  • Users highlight the similarities between Gren and OCaml in terms of syntax and how they handle string concatenation and type conversion.
  • The discussion turns to the future plans for Gren, including features such as compiling to WASM, parametric modules, structural unions, and improvements to the Ports mechanism while maintaining purity.
  • Users mention other languages like PureScript and Gleam that also aim to address the JavaScript problem and offer alternatives to Gren.

23. Deriving Dependently-Typed OOP from First Principles (arxiv.org | Archive)
109 points by matt_d | 2024-06-23 19:19:01 | 7 comments

Dehyped title: Deriving dependently-typed object-oriented programming from first principles, with discussion of defunctionalization, refunctionalization, and type soundness.


This paper explores the field of dependently-typed object-oriented programming by deriving it from first principles using the principle of duality. The authors present a dependently typed calculus with two dual language fragments - a functional/data-oriented fragment and an object-oriented/codata fragment. They provide type- and semantics-preserving transformations between these two fragments using defunctionalization and refunctionalization. The authors demonstrate the expressive power and extensibility of their system through a case study of a dependently typed web server. They also discuss the constraints on the type system design required to ensure the transformations are total and semantics-preserving.

The paper makes the central contribution of a dependently typed calculus with two dual language fragments, and shows how object-oriented programming can be systematically derived from functional programming using defunctionalization and refunctionalization.


  • Users discuss the paper's insights into the duality of functional and object-oriented programming, with some highlighting the relevance of the paper to understanding the visitor pattern and strategy pattern.
  • Some users provide links to other resources that elaborate on the topics mentioned in the paper, such as William Cook’s On Understanding Data Abstraction, Revisited, which discusses the relationship between object-oriented programs and higher-order values.
  • There is a sense of agreement that the paper provides an interesting perspective on programming paradigms and the interplay between functional and object-oriented approaches.

24. The economics of the Birkin handbag (www.wsj.com | Archive)
55 points by wallflower | 2024-06-23 20:26:08 | 110 comments

Dehyped title: The Birkin bag is a highly coveted and valuable luxury item that can be resold at a significant markup.


The Birkin handbag by Hermès is one of the most coveted and expensive fashion items in the world. A basic black leather Birkin 25 costs $11,400 at the Hermès store, but can immediately be resold to a handbag reseller like Privé Porter for $23,000 in cash. Privé Porter will then sell the Birkin for up to $32,000, even on the same day. This is possible because Hermès estimates the actual cost to make a Birkin is only around $1,000. The crazy economics of the Birkin handbag allow buyers to potentially double their money in just a few minutes by flipping the bag.


  • Users discuss the absurdity of luxury goods and their role in society, with some expressing shame at the obscene prices and others justifying them as a way to distinguish oneself.
  • There is debate over whether these goods are truly luxurious or simply overpriced, with some users noting that similar products can be found for much lower prices.
  • The discussion turns to the idea of conspicuous consumption and how it relates to luxury goods, with some users arguing that living a life free of such consumption is more distinguishing.
  • Users also bring up the issue of poverty and how it relates to the existence of these luxury goods, expressing concern over the obscene wealth gap.
  • Some users suggest that charitable donation amounts could be used as a form of status symbol, providing a way for people to signal their good deeds while still maintaining a sense of luxury.
  • Overall, the discussion highlights the complex relationship between luxury goods, conspicuous consumption, and social responsibility, with a range of viewpoints and emotions expressed by users.

25. Show HN: Feedback on Sketch Colourisation (github.com | Archive)
16 points by pinakinathc | 2024-06-22 11:33:39 | 3 comments

Dehyped title: SketchDeco: A training-free approach to colorize black-and-white sketches using masks and color palettes.


SketchDeco is a training-free sketch colorization approach that turns black-and-white sketches, masks, and color palettes into realistic images without user-defined text prompts. The code is tested on high-end GPUs and requires at least 20 GB of VRAM. The repository provides example input files, including sketches, masks, and color palettes, and instructions on how to run the SketchDeco algorithm. The algorithm uses a trade-off parameter called tau to balance color harmonization and faithfulness to the input sketch. The work builds on previous achievements in text-to-image generation and is described in a forthcoming academic publication.


  • Users provide feedback on the new project "Sketch Colourisation," offering their perspectives and suggestions for improvement. They discuss the challenges of balancing control and automation in sketch colorization, with some highlighting the importance of user-friendly interfaces and the potential of AI models. One user mentions the demand for improvements in this space and shares their experience with Pixiv colorizer and StableDiffusion 1.5 ControlNet lineart model. Another user suggests using IP-Adapter for more control over lighting and complex compositions, while also highlighting the importance of providing a detailed line drawing and paintover. Overall, users provide constructive feedback and share their experiences, offering suggestions for improvement and expressing their thoughts on the current state of sketch colorization tools.

26. Synthesizer for Thought (thesephist.com | Archive)
24 points by feross | 2024-06-24 04:17:51 | 3 comments

Dehyped title: Synthesizers enable new forms of music and creative expression by modeling sound mathematically and providing flexible human interfaces.


The document discusses how the development of mathematical models and understanding of sound enabled the creation of synthesizers, which can produce new and innovative sounds beyond what is possible with traditional acoustic instruments. Similarly, the author proposes that advancements in understanding and modeling language and ideas could enable the development of new "instruments for thought" - tools and interfaces that allow for deeper exploration, manipulation, and expression of concepts and writing styles in powerful new ways. The author suggests ideas like semantic heatmaps, spectrograms, semantic diffs, and concept libraries as examples of how these new language-based interfaces could work. Overall, the text explores how breakthroughs in the mathematical modeling of media can unlock new creative possibilities and human-computer interaction paradigms.


  • Users discuss the merits of a new audio synthesizer, comparing it to traditional methods and questioning its potential impact on music production.

  • One user highlights the potential clash with an existing technology, Corpus Linguistics, and its long history, suggesting that the new synthesizer might be a long way round to recreate something already established.

  • Another user agrees, adding that it seems to ignore a couple of millennia of linguistics, questioning its overall usefulness.

27. Formal methods: Just good engineering practice? (brooker.co.za | Archive)
151 points by ot | 2024-06-21 21:25:33 | 111 comments

Dehyped title: Formal methods can be a valuable part of good software engineering practice, especially for large-scale, distributed, and critical systems.


Formal methods are an important part of good software engineering practice, especially for large-scale, distributed, or critical systems. They can save time and money by reducing rework and change costs. While formal methods may not be as valuable for software with rapidly evolving user requirements, they are highly beneficial for systems with well-understood requirements. Tools like TLA+ and P can help engineers think through designs more quickly and find optimizations, leading to faster software development and more optimal systems. Overall, formal methods should be considered standard good engineering practice for complex software projects.


  • Users discuss the benefits of using formal methods and model checking tools such as TLA+ and Alloy for verifying complex distributed and concurrent systems. They highlight their ability to automate solving reinforcement learning problems and prove that models work as intended.

  • The discussion also covers the challenges of using these tools, including the time and effort required to learn and convince others to use them, as well as the lack of tooling for integrating model checkers into CI pipelines.

  • Users share their experiences using TLA+ and Alloy for documenting legacy systems, writing specs, and generating test cases, noting the similarities between Alloy and relational database schemas.

  • There is also a mention of using formal methods for interfacing with APIs from complex dependencies, but it is noted that this may require setting up a controlled environment like a VM.

  • Users highlight the importance of formal methods in industry, with companies like Amazon Web Services, Microsoft, and Oracle successfully applying the TLA+ methodology.

28. Neko: Portable framework for high-order spectral element flow simulations (github.com | Archive)
34 points by nateb2022 | 2024-06-24 00:43:10 | 3 comments

Dehyped title: Neko is a portable high-order spectral element flow simulation framework written in modern Fortran with support for various hardware backends.


Neko is a portable framework for high-order spectral element flow simulations, written in modern Fortran with an object-oriented approach. It allows for multi-tier abstractions of the solver stack and supports various hardware backends. The project is actively developed, with documentation available at neko.cfd. Building Neko requires a Fortran compiler, MPI, JSON-Fortran, and BLAS/LAPACK, with optional dependencies on gslib and ParMETIS. Several publications have used Neko for large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations.


  • Users discuss the lack of visuals for the Neko framework, with one user providing links to visual resources and papers related to the topic.
  • There is interest in the potential application of a spinning rod for propulsion, leveraging the Magnus effect, and the discussion highlights the challenges of implementing numerical algorithms and the benefits of testing in a wind tunnel.
  • Users express appreciation for the technical field, despite the challenges presented by outdated tools and software.

29. Bringing Roman Light to Life (www.journals.uchicago.edu | Archive)
38 points by Hooke | 2024-06-22 03:59:41 | 3 comments

Dehyped title: Unable to generate summary


The exhibition "Nuova luce da Pompei" explored the role of artificial light in ancient Roman daily life. It featured a variety of bronze lighting instruments excavated from the Vesuvius region, shedding new light on how lighting affected the experience of Roman interiors and decorations. The exhibition used interactive demonstrations, virtual reality, and detailed analysis to reveal the complex and dynamic nature of ancient lighting, challenging the static perspective often presented in museum settings. A highlight was the recreation of a triclinium in the House of Polybius, allowing visitors to directly experience the effects of lighting on the space. The exhibition provided fresh insights into the social, cultural, and practical functions of artificial light in the ancient world.


  • Users highlight the importance of immersive experiences, with one comparing it to 3D game engines and another noting the overuse of lighting today.
  • There is criticism of the display of Roman lamps in museums, with one user expressing disappointment at the lack of visitor interaction and the presentation of lamps behind glass.
  • A user comments on the emotional impact of lighting, suggesting that modern usage treats light as a utility rather than an experience to be cherished.

30. Writing an IR from Scratch and survive to write a post (farena.in | Archive)
48 points by matt_d | 2024-06-23 20:39:35 | 7 comments

Dehyped title: Writing an Intermediate Representation from Scratch: Challenges and Design Decisions


The text describes the author's experience in designing and implementing the first version of the Intermediate Representation (IR) for the Kunai Static Analyzer, a Dalvik bytecode analysis library. The author discusses the key design decisions and the different components of the IR, including statements, expressions, and types. The IR was implemented using a control-flow graph representation with basic blocks containing the IR instructions. The author also explains some of the algorithms used to manipulate the control-flow graph, such as finding paths, computing dominators, and generating SSA form. Finally, the text provides insights into the author's learning process and the challenges faced when creating a custom IR for analyzing Dalvik bytecode.


  • Users discuss the meaning of IR, with some providing context and explaining their understanding of the acronym.

  • Some users share their experiences with writing IR and implementing algorithms to transform bytecode into IR.

  • There are also comments about the challenges of reading and understanding acronyms, with suggestions for improving their usage in text.

  • Users share their interpretations of the title, with some humorous responses.

  • One user shares their experience with incident response and how it relates to the article.